Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Water Quality for Surface and Groundwater at Bonny Island, Nigeria

Ejike Okoli

Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment (COHSE), University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie *

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ejikeme Ugwoha

Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment (COHSE), University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The aim of the study was to assess the spatial distribution of water quality for surface and ground water at Bonny Island in Rivers State, Nigeria. Surface and Groundwater samples were collected from 9 sampling locations and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons. The contaminants in the surface and groundwater were measured using a variety of methods. Heavy metals in the water were measured using gas chromatography, PAHs were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (ASS) while THC were measured using HACH DR/890 colorimeter. The water quality index (WQI) was calculated using the Weighted Arithmetic Index Method while Principal Component Analysis was used to understand the distribution of the physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons. The results showed that the WQI for both surface and groundwater samples ranged from 55.22 – 125.39, indicating poor to unfit water quality for consumption. In contrast, a control location away from the industrial activities had good water quality with WQI between 35.19 and 45.77. Principal component analysis revealed that the surface water in the industrial area were contaminated with lead, Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon which indicate oil and gas activities. High chloride, nitrate and sulphate levels were also observed in surface water close to the NLNG plant. Limiting further contamination of the surface and groundwater can be achieved by constant effluent and plume stack monitoring by regulatory agencies. Industrial stakeholder should set up subsidized clinics to provide treatment for any gastrointestinal illnesses or renal damage suffered by residents.

Keywords: Water quality index, surface water, groundwater, groundwater contamination, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, Oil & Gas Industry

How to Cite

Okoli , E., Nwaogazie, I. L., & Ugwoha , E. (2024). Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Water Quality for Surface and Groundwater at Bonny Island, Nigeria. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 26(6), 50–59.


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