Open Access Original Research Article

Treatment Efficiency of Drill Cuttings Using Thermal Desorption Technology

Nwosu, Barry Emeka, Ogbonna F. Joel

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i317447

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze and determine the treatment efficiency of drill cuttings using the Thermal Desorption Technology.

Study Design: Drill cuttings were obtained from a work-over drilling operation with samples obtained at a depth of 2,750m from a typical well for this baseline study. The aim is to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of the drill cuttings in a laboratory before and after the thermal desorption processes. A second drill cutting sample from another field location at the same depth of 2,750m was used for comparison during the analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria (Laboratory analysis was done at Anal Concept Ltd, Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria and the thermal desorption unit is situated at the Initiates Plc, Etche LGA, Rivers state, Nigeria).

Methodology: A representative sample feedstock of cuttings was collected before and after the thermal treatment. The drill cutting sample was taken from a mixing tank by using a cup and auger. The samples of the cuttings were made for each case of the grab samples, and the samples later transferred into 500mL glass bottles. The sample contaminants were analyzed in a chemical laboratory using standard methods for determining the pH level, Electrical Conductivity, Moisture Content, Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metals.

Results: The result showed significant reductions in all the pollutant concentrations after the drill cuttings were treated with the Thermal Desorption Unit. Moisture Content (MC) and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased significantly by 86% and 93% respectively. The concentration of the combination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) reduced drastically by 98% and the heavy metals concentration levels were also reduced after treatment with the TDU. Also, the laboratory analysis result of the treated drill cuttings shows that the pH level, Electrical Conductivity, Moisture Content, Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metals concentrations did not exceed the recommended Department of Petroleum Resources (D.P.R) limits.

Conclusion: This research reveals that the thermal desorption technology is the most economical, efficient and environmentally friendly method of waste management due to its contaminant removal efficiency. This method enhances product recovery and subsequent recycling which helps to reduce environmental impact and prevent economic losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics Studies on the Coagulation of Abattoir Wastewater Using Groundnut Shell Extract as a Natural Coagulant

Mmasinachi Mary Nweke, Franklin O. Chukwuma, Benson O. Evbuomwan, Akuma Oji

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i317449

This paper investigated the use of extract from groundnut shells as a natural coagulant for the reduction of turbidity in abattoir wastewater using the coagulation process. The ideal concentration of NaCl for coagulant extraction was established through a series of jar tests. The effects of process variables of coagulant dosage (1-5 g/L), settling time (0-60 min), pH (2-10) and temperature (298-318 K) on the turbidity reduction efficiency were examined using a bench-scale jar test. At an optimal condition of 4g/L, pH 8, temperature of 318K, and settling period of 20 minutes, a reduction efficiency of 94.33% was achieved. The Second-order per-kinetic theory of Von-Smoluchowski’s was used for kinetic evaluation at temperatures of 298 K, 308 K and 318 K. At a temperature of 298 K, the experimental data fit perfectly into the Von-Smoluchowski second-order per-kinetics theory, with a correlation coefficient of 0.952, coagulation rate constant of 0.00002 L/(mg.min), collision efficiency of 8.703exp12 and coagulation time of 48.27 min, establishing that the rapid coagulation theory holds true for the coagulation of abattoir wastewater using groundnut shell extract and under the experimental conditions. As a result of the findings, it is proposed that groundnut shell extract, which is readily available and environmentally safe, is effective for turbidity reduction of sewage water and can be used as an alternative to chemical coagulants for the pre-treatment of abattoir wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution Network Reliability and Efficiency Enhancement Using Distributed Generation

Raymond Onyeka Nwajuonye, Innocent Ifeanyi Okonkwo, Johnpaul I. Iloh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 55-71
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i317452

The Nigerian power sector is faced with many challenges such as: generation deficit, inefficiency and power loss over lengthy transmission and distribution lines, contribution to greenhouse gas emission, weak and dilapidated transmission and distribution infrastructure, dependence on fossil fuels, insufficient power. Efforts should be put in place by relevant authorities to improve the power sector. With the distribution network being the closest to the final consumer, efforts should be made to make it more efficient. This study therefore aims at improving the performance of poor distribution network using Distributed Generation (DG), optimally placed and sized in the network.  The Asaba, 2 X 15MVA, 33/11kV injection substation in Asaba, Delta state of Nigeria consisting of Anwai road feeder and SPC feeder radiating outwardly from this injection substation was the focus of this study. Relevant data collected from Benin Electricity Distribution Company (BEDC) was used to carry out load flow study. The simulation and analysis of the result and injection of photovoltaic (PV) DG of Asaba injection substation distribution network using Newton-Raphson iteration technique in ETAP 12.6environment to ascertain the overall performance of the network under base loading condition was modelled from a drawn detailed single line diagram of the network. DGs were optimally placed in specific buses in the network using loss sensitivity analysis. The result revealed that prior to DG placement in the network, only 10.4% of the buses were within statutory voltage limit (394.25V – 435.75V or 0.95p.u – 1.05p.u) and 89.6% of the load buses in the network violated the statutory voltage limit and high losses (active and reactive) of 1329.08kW and 2031kVar. After the optimal placement of DG, the active and reactive power losses on the network reduced by 57.5% and 70.7%. While the voltage profile improved by 94.8%, thereby increasing the capacity, reliability and efficiency of distribution network.  

Open Access Review Article

Review of Python Applications in Solving Oil and Gas Problems

Edet Ita Okon, Dulu Appah, Joseph A. Ajienka

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i317448

Python has grown in popularity throughout various industries, corporations, universities, government, and research groups. Its true potential to automate various processes while increased predictability capabilities have been noticed in various industries. The petroleum industry is at the beginning phase of applying it to solve oil and gas problems. The rise in its popularity in the oil and gas industry is due to the digital transformation such as sensors and high-performance computing services that enable artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), big data acquisition, and storage in digital oilfields. A quick search on the number of publications in the oil and gas industry with the Society of Petroleum Engineers (OnePetro) in the past few years attests to this fact. Hence, it has proven to be a promising application that can bring about a revolutionary change in the oil and gas industry and transform the existing features for solving oil and gas problems. This will help the production and reservoir engineers to better manage the production operation without any need for expensive software. It will also reduce the overall operating cost and increase revenue.

Open Access Review Article

Anisotropic Metamaterials Filled Rectangular Metallic Waveguides Propagation Study and Analysis

Nizar Tahri

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i317450

In this paper, we propose a novel generalized S-matrix characterization approach. The goal is to keep track of all observed discontinuities as efficiently as possible. In terms of reflection value, the proposed control strategy is based on transmission coefficients and one-axis rectangular guides. We successfully manipulate metal rectangular waveguide filters with both geometrical and physical discontinuity. Lossless discontinuity is depicted as a periodic structure that contains Metamaterials. The modal development of transverse fields provides the basis for the generalized S-matrix approach. The approach works by breaking down electromagnetic fields for each of the guides that make up the discontinuity on an orthonormal basis. When the Galerkin method is used, the matrix of diffraction of the junction is obtained directly.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Artificial Neural Network and Its Application Research in Distillation

Jing Sun, Qi Tang

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v21i317451

With the development of rectification technology, the scale of its production equipment has continued to expand, and its calculation requirements have become more complex. The use of traditional optimized control methods can no longer meet the requirements. Artificial neural networks imitate the human brain for self-learning and optimization, intelligently process various complex information, and have been widely used in various chemical processes. Because the artificial neural network has the advantages of self-learning, associative storage, and high-speed search for optimized solutions, it can perform high-precision simulation and prediction of rectification operations, and has been widely used in the optimal control of rectification towers. This article gives a basic overview of artificial neural networks, and introduces the application research of artificial neural networks in distillation at home and abroad.