Open Access Short Research Article

Investigation on the Flexural Modulus of Silicon Dies to Improve Die Mechanical Modeling Accuracy

Jefferson Talledo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 57-64
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017389

Mechanical modeling of integrated circuit (IC) dies is commonly performed using the mechanical properties of the bulk silicon material. However, modeling results such as die deflection and the actual results were observed to have significant difference. This paper discusses the investigation done on the flexural modulus of actual IC dies used in package assembly manufacturing. Results were then compared with the modulus of the bulk silicon die or mirror die. The measurement of flexural modulus was done using the standard 3-point bend test. It was found out that the flexural modulus of the actual IC die is significantly lower than the flexural modulus of the bulk silicon or dummy die. Even with the actual IC die, the flexural modulus of the active side is also lower than the back side. From this study, it can be concluded that mechanical modeling involving IC dies could be improved by characterizing the properties of the actual die used. The common practice of using the properties of the bulk silicon die in mechanical modeling would not provide accurate results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Process Simplification on Integration of UV Cure Machine with Tape Saw Singulation

Mariane A. Mendoza, Alyssa Grace S. Gablan, Hardy L. Tierra, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017382

Strips that have undergone tape saw singulation will not be completed without the ultraviolet (UV) curing process. To detach the units from the tape, the singulated strips have required further assistance to be loaded for UV cure. Otherwise, hard-to-pick units will be the outcome and sticky residues were usually observed to be attached on the units. Since tape sawn strips requires UV cure, suppliers were asked to engage on upgrading their machine to equip the singulation machine with UV cure. The principle is that after sawing, the singulated strips will be washed and dry normally at the spinner. Then instead of unloading the singulated strips, the machine will pass it first to the inline UV cure machine and then unload when successfully completed the whole process. Through adding the UV curing process in the package singulation sequence, singulated strips unloaded are now ready for the next succeeding process. That way, it would be much help to lessen the handling of sawn strips from one machine to another. The introduction of inline UV cure has simplified the process by automation which increased the security of the units’ quality as well as the productivity of manpower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Assessment Considering Architectural Constraints with Seismic Retrofitting

Abdulrahman Sanoufi, Hani Bawazeer, Yoseff Sebaei, Yousef Shaheen, Muhammad Tayyab Naqash

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017383

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in a low to medium earthquake zone. Therefore, the inclusion of seismic loads in building design was limited to specific building structures such as highrise and midrise in the past decades. Recently, the development and adoption of the Saudi Building Code (SBC) and the experienced seismic activity at many regions in the Kingdom necessitate detailed seismic design considerations for all buildings. Given this, the current work initially emphasizes assessing structural grids obtained from an architectural plan for an existing building in AL Madina. Then the structure has been analyzed critically in such a way to reduce columns and simplify the structural grid. Also, the orientation of columns has been modified to obtain structure symmetry keeping in view the architectural constraints. Two cases have been developed initially: flat slab and solid slab and designed to withstand gravity loads using Saudi Building Provisions. These cases are analyzed for the seismicity of the Medina Region. Since Medina is less prone to seismicity, the building withstands the lateral load calculated based on static analysis. To assess these buildings for stronger earthquakes, we increased the applied load to assess their capacity. Since both the proposed cases fail to withstand the increased seismic load, a bracing system has been introduced at the locations where it does not disturb the architecture of the building. It was observed that introducing bracing improves the performance of the structures. Therefore concluding that complex structural grids schemes can be simplified, regularized, and economized as well. In addition, bracings provide an easy technique to retrofit already existing RC buildings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Optimal Design and Circular Broach Modular Design of Disc Cutters with the Development of a Parametric Model

Ezekiel Oluwadamilare Akintona, Okeagu Fredrick, Nwufo Maduka Augustine

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017384

Cutting tool is one of the most important instruments in production. It is used for machining of different components on machine tools. A material is cut into a chip to incur the desired work piece surface currently used in engineering various cutting tools. The directions of development of structures of metal cutting tools are: higher precision of dimensional and geometrical parameters, the use of new tool materials, cost, and quick. The cutting tools are not only affected by the design of machine, technology of manufacturing of products, but also impact the constructive forms of machine parts. The emergence of mechanical spine, thanks to the pull method. Spine broach can provide high-performance processing spine bore with the required accuracy. The development of heavy machine tools required the creation of new designs of large instruments. The use of mechanical automatic lines also required design tools with high dimensional stability capable of handling the items within the specified tolerance for a certain time. Instruments were developed in the process of renewing the cutting edge of the cutting tools with automatic adjustment; setting up tools on the size of the machine is a device for automatic replacement of worn tool in the process line of the Computer-Aided Manufacturing CAM of the cutting tool special requirements. Equipment must operate with high level efficiency, so to reduce the loss of time resetting of the need to minimal. A cutting tool requires knowledge of the theoretical foundations of design and calculation tools using CAD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elimination of Non-stick on Leads Defect through Re-designed WCTP

Richard G. Mariano, Alyssa Grace S. Gablan, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 22-26
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017385

This paper presents the reformation and fabrication resolved on the wire clamp and top plate (WCTP) design to eliminate the presence of lead finger bouncing resulting to high rejection of non-stick on leads (NSOL). Problem experienced was that the hollow or half-etched portion of the leadframe at the top and bottom units caused its bouncing effect. With the aim to improve localized massive NSOL defect, WCTP has been modified to provide positive bias to support its hollow part or the half-etched part of the leadframe at the top and bottom of the units. The re-designed WCTP was fabricated, extending its clamping with enhanced vacuum on top and bottom rows. The implementation of the improved WCTP design reduced the defect with 88 % improvement with the defect reduction during the lot runs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of a Microcontroller Based Community Security System for Developing Nations

O. O. Akinwole, A. S. Adewale, A. J. Ojo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017386

There can never be any time in the history of mankind that issue of community security secures the rapt attentions of all and sundries. It is believed in many security circles that the upsurge may not be unconnected from craves for materialism, ubiquitous social media technologies and a breakdown in citizen’s value systems. The design uses an AtMega328P based Microcontroller to develop the security system. It uses Photosensitive and Passive Infrared devices as sensors. Codes were written and compiled. Simulation was done using Proteus while implementation was achieved on breadboard. The system operates each time an intruder is sensed; with the presence of any burglar, a buzzer sounds an alarm and security lighting system switch on for five minutes. A 16 by 2 LCD unit displays the state of the machine.  It is believed undoubtedly that the loud noise from the buzzer will keep awake the domestic buildings’ occupants and other security conscious neighbours thereby scaring away the unwanted guests.

Open Access Original Research Article

RSOB Shorting Defect Resolution through Looping Optimization and Ball Placement at Wirebond Process

Norman S. Calma, Jonathan C. Pulido, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017387

Wirebonding process is one of the most challenging assembly manufacturing process in semiconductor packaging industry. This paper discussed the wirebonding challenge and the solution to resolve the wire to die shorting on reverse stitch on ball (RSOB) and prevent irregular looping height for the substrate land grid array (LGA) device. Comprehensive parameter optimization was done particularly on the wirebond looping to ensure that no wire depression and no capillary hitting would occur wirebonding setup. Ultimately, the optimized wirebonding parameter prevented the occurrence of looping issues during the lot process.  For future works, the configuration and technique could be applied on packages with similar situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of High Sensitivity Illuminance Meter for Measurements in Lighting Engineering and Photometry

Eduard V. Kuvaldin

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017390

Possible ways of solving the main problems arising in development, manufacture and calibration of high-sensitivity Illuminance meters are considered. Methods of reducing the lower limit of measurement of Illuminance to 10-5 lux are proposed. Errors of correcting light filters of different manufacturing methods are estimated. The calculations of measurement errors of illuminance from modern energy-saving lamps and LEDs are made.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Optimised Traffic Control Scheme with Preference to Emergency Vehicles Leveraging RFID

Kenneth Akpado, Samuel Usoro, Nneka Ezeani

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 74-89
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017391

Emergency Vehicles (EV) such as ambulances, fire fighting vehicles, Road safety vehicles and other emergency vehicles encounter delays on their missions at traffic light control points due to traffic jams. The direct consequence of these delays results in unwarranted loss of lives and properties.  This research work proposes and implements an improved traffic control system with preference to emergency vehicles leveraging RFID technology and a novel Dynamic Traffic Sequence Algorithm (DTSA). Atmega 328 was used to actualize the novel DTSA, control the RFID and the entire traffic control system. The distance of RFID signal transmitted by the emergency vehicle was determined by physically measuring the distance of clearer signal obtained at various distances from the test bed. MATLAB was used to plot the response time of the RFID, thereby helping in the choice of RFID used. It was observed at 100 meters distance between the RFID transmitter in the emergency vehicle (EV) and the traffic light system, a clearer signal was obtained. Therefore at 100 meters the emergency vehicle will be detected and the traffic system will reset its normal routine to give right of way to the particular lane that the emergency vehicle is detected. Comparing the old and the new system it was observed that in the new system the EV will be 12minutes faster than the EV in the old system. From the result obtained, the RFID best suited for this application is active RFID. The results obtained proved that the system will effectively mitigate and almost completely eradicate the delay encountered by emergency vehicles at traffic control points.  The system will be deployed in any many cities in Nigeria that have traffic control systems installed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Epoxy Paint Formulation on Metal Surfaces

Le Huy Hai, Le Mai Xuan Truc, Nguyen Quoc Trung

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 90-96
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017392

Currently, epoxy paint is being widely used in the industry. Nanotechnology can create many small nanometer-sized materials with many applications, it has brought many outstanding properties to epoxy paints. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles in epoxy paint formulation towards metal surface. We created a sample of two-component epoxy paint, part A is epoxy resin, anti-sedimentation, dispersant substance, foam breaking agent, cover substance, solvent, other additives, and part B is a curing agent for epoxy resins.  Methods of analyzing the properties of the epoxy paint film are based on Vietnam standards. TiO2 nanoparticles are a good coating substance in epoxy paint. The study results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles have increased the properties of the epoxy paint film, improving the Impact and Glossy of the epoxy paint film. TiO2 nanoparticles increases from 1% to 6% by weight, the impact increased by about 18.75%.  (80 to 96 kg.cm), Glossy 600 increased by about 12.79% (80 to 97). Adding TiO2 nanoparticles to epoxy paint has increased Impact and Glossy for the paint film. The higher the rate of TiO2 nanoparticles, the better the properties of the epoxy paint film. Therefore, TiO2 nanoparticles are a good coating in epoxy paint, it improves the properties of the paint film. Because the cost of nanomaterials is higher than that of normal coating materials, the nanomaterial should only be added with a ratio of about 2-5% by weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studying the effect of Eliminating Repeated Individuals from the Population in a Genetic Algorithm: Solution Perspectives for the Travelling Salesman Problem

Laura Michele Báez Villegas, Santiago Omar Caballero Morales

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 97-102
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017393

The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is one of the main routing problems in the Logistics and Supply Chain Management fields. Given its computational complexity, metaheuristics are frequently needed to solve it to near-optimality. In this aspect, Genetic Algorithms (GA) are promising methods, however, their search performance depends of populations of solutions which can increase computational processing. Thus, the management of this component is subject to adaptations to reduce its computational burden and improve overall performance. This work explores on the elimination of repeated individuals within the population which may represent a significant fraction of its size and do not add valuable information to the solution search mechanisms of the GA. This cleaning process is expected to contribute to solution diversity. Experiments performed with different TSP test instances support the finding that this cleaning process can improve the convergence of the GA to very suitable solutions (within the 10% error limit). These findings were statistically validated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Velocity Slip Effect on MHD Power-Law Fluid over a Moving Surface with Heat Generation, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation

Falana Ayodeji, Babatope. O Pele

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 103-112
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017394

The problem of laminar boundary layer flow of power-law fluid over a continuous moving surface in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with velocity slip was investigated. The governing partial differential equations for the flow and heat transfer were transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using the similarity method. These equations were solved numerically by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with a shooting technique. The solution is found to be dependent on various parameters such as power-law index, magnetic field parameter, suction, and injection parameters. The effect of various flow parameters in the form of dimensionless quantities on the flow field is discussed and graphically presented. It was observed that an increase in the magnetic property results to a decrease flow of fluid velocity and also, an increase in the Prandtl number results to an increase in the rate of heat transfer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Repair and Maintenance Cost Estimation for Two Power Sizes of Agricultural Tractors as Affected by Hours of Use and Age in Years: A Case Study, Dongola Area, Sudan

Mohamed H. Dahab, Montasir A. Gafar, Abdul Gadir M. Abdul Rahman

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 113-121
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017395

Repair and maintenance cost is considered as one of important items for machinery management and selection especially agricultural tractors. The present study was carried out in Dongola area for tractor repair and maintenance costs estimation. The data was collected from records of Elshimalya Company for Agricultural services. Forty-four tractors representing two powers sizes, 75hp and 150hp used in the area were selected for this study. Based on the data collected, regression correlation analysis was carried out and mathematical models were derived to predict the accumulated repair and maintenance (R and M) costs as percent of purchase price in relation to accumulated hours of use and age (years) for each tractor size, and for the two sizes collectively. Five model forms (linear, logarithmic, polynomial, power and exponential) were derived and the power function was found the best fit to explain the relation. The accumulated Rand M costs as percent of purchase price (Y) was increased as the accumulated hours of use (x) and age (g) of the tractor in years were increased. A high correlation was found between the accumulated R and M cost and both accumulated hours of use and tractor age in years (Average R2 = 0.93).

It was concluded that the power function was the best fit for repair and maintenance cost estimations and this relation may be used as an average of the two tractor powers, for estimation of the accumulated R and M costs as percent of purchase price (Y) with accumulated hours of use (x) and age (g): Y=0.028x0.662 (mean) Y=12.294g1.276 (mean).

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptive Switching Hybrid Blast-STBC MIMO System

Mohammed Salemdeeb, Ammar Abu-Hudrouss

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 122-137
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017396

Fading in a wireless channel has negative effects on the performance of communication systems. Bell Laboratories layered space-time (BLAST) has been used to get a high data rate while space-time block codes (STBC) have been used to get a low bit error rate (BER) performance. Under deep faded channels, hybrid BLAST-STBC systems are considered as a trade-off between BLAST and STBC systems. By exploiting the benefits of both systems, a new method to represent a 4 × 4 multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) system is proposed and studied, in which the transmission process is carried out adaptively between both 4 × 4 VBLAST, Quasi-Orthogonal STBC (QOSTBC) and Hybrid systems according to the transmit links state. The proposed adaptive switching hybrid system (ASHS) reduces the total transmitted power, achieves the maximum throughput by obtaining the best BER. An adaptive switching transmission scheme using the strategy of measuring the transmit links fading is investigated as well. The simulated results are obtained in an environment of a 4 × 4 MIMO system using MATLAB platform where the total transmitting power is normalized to unity. The detections are done using the maximum likelihood (ML) receiver. The proposed ASHS system shows a lot of advantages such as maximum throughput is obtained in bad channel states, no additional transmit power is needed and no additional bandwidth is needed. Finally, under deep fading condition, the proposed ASHS transmission scheme obtains the best BER, reduces wasting the total transmitted power, achieves the maximum throughput and obtains the best BER.

Open Access Review Article

A Literature Review on the Development of Remote Sensing in Damage Detection of Civil Structures

Khaled Ghaedi, Meisam Gordan, Zubaidah Ismail, Huzaifa Hashim, Marieh Talebkhah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 39-56
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i1017388

Remote sensing technologies have a direct impact on gaining structural damage information due to their powerful flexibilities, such as wide field of view, non-contact, low cost, and fast response capacities. It is because remote sensing is often applied to monitor near-real-time damage for large-scale events. Therefore, diverse types of remote sensing data became available and various methods have been designed and reported for structural damage assessment. In this line, a number of remote sensing procedures have been proposed to develop an extensive range of temporal, spectral, and spatial parameters. In this study, a comparative review is conducted in order to present the applied remote sensing-based damage detection approaches in buildings and bridges. It should be noted that the survey is supported by an extensive list for up-to-date references. Based on this review, it can be concluded that remote sensing has widely attracted attentions in different structural engineering fields due to its ability in providing fast response in terms of continuous monitoring for large areas after a natural hazard.