Open Access Technical Note

A Note on the Structural Assessment of Perforated Panels used in Façade

Muhammad Tayyab Naqash

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 123-128
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617335

Different materials such as glass and composite cladding panels are common in the façade industry due to their architectural appearance. The direct sun rays enter the building and might produce discomfort to the occupants, especially in office and institutional buildings. Nowadays, perforated panels are widely used in facades and becoming more popular in the middle east. These panels are a formal exploration inspired by the Islamic patterns used in traditional Mashrabiya. This paper provides an overview of the application of Mashrabiya "perforated panels" and present structural assessment using software codes such as Robot and SAP2000 for vertical and horizontal installed cases. These panels are fabricated in different sizes with different thicknesses depends on their applications and uses. In this paper, rectangular, square fixed at the roof and vertically fixed panels are assessed. These are usually supported by steel or aluminium tubes designed for a wind load specified by project specifications. The cases presented here for the perforated panels arechecked for the induced stresses and deflections obtained from the numerical model using shell elements. The adopted framing systems and fixing detailing has been found satisfactory according to different acceptance criterion. The paper gives helpful design tools for the façade engineers.

Open Access Short Research Article

Design and Development of Mini-pulsar for Real-Time Bioelectric Experiment

Gyanendra Kumar, R Sarathi, Archana Sharma

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617322

Investigation of the effect of pulsed electric field on eukaryotic cells has been of interestto biomedical scientists and researchers since a few decades. Reversible electroporation (EP) is used for uptake of chemicals, drugs, DNA into the eukaryotic cells under low electric field (100’s V/cm) of millisecond duration to few hundreds of microsecond duration. An electric field of nanosecond duration and a very high electric field (50’s kV/cm) can stress to intracellular organelles of eukaryotic cells and that can trigger apoptotic pathways. In this article experimental setup has been prepared for real-time investigation of the effect of nanosecond electric field on eukaryotic cells. Pulsar producing ~1.5kV, 20ns FWHM, single shot as well as ~10Hz rep-rate with rise-time as fast as ~10ns, has been prepared using blumlein pulse forming line and avalanche transistor switches. A 300µm gap microplate chamber has been prepared to expose the electric fieldtoeukaryotic cells.

Open Access Short Research Article

Comparison of Silicon Die Strength Using Different Loading Anvil Shapes

Jefferson Talledo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617323

Die fracture strength measurement is important to assess the robustness of a specific silicon die such that it is strong enough to resist die crack. There are several methods used to measure the strength of silicon die and 3-point bend test is the most common. However, the impact of the loading anvil shape on die strength results needs to be investigated. This paper discusses the comparison of die strength characterization using different loading anvil shapes in a 3-point bend test. The anvil shapes considered were wedge shape and needle shape. Die strength calculations were all done using the standard 3-point bend formula for flexural stress. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that die strength measured using wedge shape loading anvil is not significantly different from the strength measured using the needle shape loading anvil. Therefore, using the needle shape loading anvil in a 3-point bend test could still provide die strength results comparable with the results using the standard wedge shape loading anvil.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Silicon Die Condition on the Breaking Load Performance of a Dam and Fill Semiconductor Package

Jefferson Talledo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617328

A semiconductor package has a silicon die on which an integrated circuit (IC) is fabricated. The die is singulated from a single wafer using processes like mechanical sawing or laser grooving. These processes have impact on the final condition of the silicon die after wafer singulation. This paper discusses a study on the effect of the die condition on the breaking load of a package with a dam and fills structure. The encapsulation material of this type of package has lower modulus when compared with the epoxy mold compound material used in most molded packages. The package breaking load was determined using 3-point bend test for two sets of packages. The first set of packages was assembled with silicon die produced using mechanical sawing. The second set was assembled with die produced using laser grooving. Results of the 3-point bend test showed that the breaking load of the package with die from mechanical sawing is higher compared with the package assembled with die from laser grooving. The study revealed that that the silicon die condition has significant effect on the robustness of the final package where the die is used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reducing the effects of Power Harmonics on Distribution Transformers using Simplex Optimization Technique

N. B. Ngang, N. E. Aneke

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617321

There have been incessant power failures in our power network, which has arisen as a result of over current, over voltage, harmonic distortion caused by ripples to mention a few, This could be overcome by determining the harmonic mean from a given harmonic distortion data ,optimizing the mean from a given distortion data, training the optimized result to minimize harmonic in power distribution transformer, designing a Simulink model for mitigating the resultant effect of harmonics which are the sinusoidal components of a complex wave, using simplex optimizationtechnique. The optimization technique used is 69% better than the conventional method like proportional integral derivative (PID) in terms of minimizing harmonic in power transformer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Exposure of Cement on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

D. O. Eneowaji, O. Ucheowaji

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617324

Concrete quality is of paramount importance to engineers and this is dependent on the quality of cement. One of the reasons for poor quality of cement is exposure condition of cement which is considered in this research. The behavior of the compressive strength of concrete with respect to the duration of exposure of cement was investigated and the limiting duration of exposure of cement beyond which it is not fit for structural concrete was established. Two basic exposure conditions were considered (Warehouse and Open-Air) for different durations (ranging from 6 to 42 hours). The target strength of concrete for this research was 30MPa; Slump and crushing tests were carried out for 99 samples and it was observed that the strength of concrete significantly reduced from 29.13MPa for the control sample (No exposure) to 17.28MPa and 13.90MPa for 42 hours cement exposure under Warehouse and Open-Air exposure respectively. A regression model was calibrated to predict the strength of concrete and % Loss of strength with increase in exposure duration for both conditions, this model possessed high correlation. Furthermore, the limiting exposure duration was established to be 16.7 hours and 10.5 hours under Warehouse and Open-Air exposure respectively. Finally, it was observed that the Strength of concrete is hugely dependent on the quality of cement which is significantly affected by the exposure duration; also, the workability of the concrete is not affected by the exposure of cement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for Power Plant Temperature Monitoring and Control using Fuzzylite

F. I. David, K. A. Akpado, T. L. Alumona

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 33-51
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617325

Design and implementation of a fuzzy logic controller for power plant temperature monitoring and control used fuzzy lite software to simulate using triangular method and compared with bell shape membership function. Fuzzy logic technology was deployed; the motor temperature and RPM being used as crisp inputs to the fuzzy logic controller with appropriate membership function definitions. The fuzzy logic was designed and simulated using the Fuzzy Lite and Proteus software. It was implemented as firmware written in C++ programming language being executed on the PIC16F877A microcontroller. The results gotten from the simulations and implementation were in concordance as variations in motor temperature influenced motor speed. Triangular method used in this work was compared with Bell shape method used in previous work to ascertain its contribution to knowledge and also discovered that triangular method is more precise in its result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conceptualized Improvement on Transparent Glass Die for a Robust Manufacturing Process

Jerome J. Dinglasan, Frederick Ray I. Gomez, Alyssa Grace S. Gablan

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 52-56
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617326

Glass die are one of the materials used by semiconductor plants during production of specialized quad-flat no-leads (QFN) products. With its transparent appearance and fragile characteristics, several challenges are encountered and analyzed to resolve unwanted issues and to have a robust process manufacturing. This paper will discuss a potential concept of process improvement on the side of the device’s manufacturing with pattern recognition capability as detection and identification of the material to be processed. The paper will also discuss different options that can be selectively considered with respect to the manufacturer’s capability of their process flow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Effect of Metal Inert Gas Welding Parameters on AA10119 Mild Steel Quality by Taguchi Method

Jephthah A. Ikimi, Aigbovbiosa A. Momodu, Erhuvwu Totore

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617327

In welding, the quality of welded joints is greatly influenced by the welding process parameters. Thus, in order to achieve a good weld quality, there is exigency to select the right welding process parameters. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding process parameters; welding current, welding voltage and welding speed on the tensile strength of mild steel AA10119 welded plates. The experiment was designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array with three levels. Kaierda MIG MAG Inverter CO2 Welder Model E-180 welding machine was used to conduct the experiments with three repetitions. From the analysis carried out by applying Taguchi’s method, the result shows that the welding speed and welding current have the most significant influence on tensile strength of the weld and an optimum parameter setting of A3B2C2 was suggested; welding current 240 A, welding voltage 25 V and welding speed 0.010 m/s. The mean tensile strength at this optimal setting A3B2C2 was predicted to be 442 N/mm2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Augmented Sidewall Topology Simulation of Semiconductor Die

Rennier Rodriguez, Frederick Ray Gomez, Edwin Graycochea Jr.

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 70-74
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617329

The paper presents a modified design for wafer level semiconductor devices, using a CAD (computer-aided design) tool for visualization. The discussion provides a specialized manufacturing flow for the augmented die design through advanced wafer fabrication method and wafer cutting technique. Ultimately, the new package design would result for better visual inspection and interface anchoring between the device and the external board.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Simpler but Accurate Free Gas Deviation Factor for Fractured (Dual-Porosity) Volumetric Gas Reservoir Fluid

A. J. Alawode, O. A. Falode

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 88-103
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617331

Gas compressibility factor, also known as gas deviation factor or Z-factor, is a thermodynamic correction factor which describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behaviour. The, free gas Z-factor in the Material Balance Equation (MBE) of single-porosity gas reservoirs with insignificant rock (matrix) compaction (after pressure depletion) does not reflect cases in low-permeability gas reservoirs having remarkable rock compaction. Through gas MBE modifications, previous researchers developed Z-factors for dual-porosity (fractured) low permeability gas reservoirs by incorporating gas desorption; however, their approaches create complexity for routine calculations. Therefore this study was designed with the purpose of deriving a free gas Z-factor for single-porosity low-permeability gas reservoirs and further modifying it for more simplicity and accuracy in a dual-porosity scenario. The free gas Z-factor derived for single-porosity low-permeability gas reservoirs is expressed as:  where , , , ,  and  are single-porosity Z-factor without rock compaction at pressure , water compressibility, initial water saturation, matrix compressibility, initial gas saturation and pressure depletion, respectively. However, the developed dual porosity free gas Z-factor model incorporates ratio of dual porosity to initial matrix porosity, and it is expressed as:    where  and  are initial matrix porosity and fracture porosity, respectively. The Z-factor model was graphically and statistically correlated with an existing free gas Z-factor model for dual porosity reservoirs. For all the hydraulically fractured shale gas formations considered, the correlations yield R2 values of 1.000.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved Die Attribute Recognition via Colored Glass Wafer

Alyssa Grace Gablan, Jerome Dinglasan, Frederick Ray Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 104-108
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617332

The rise of various Wafer technologies has been developed based on industries and applications requirement. Highest quality of material characterization is complex and requires specialized process equipment and manufacturing procedures to meet defined design standards. The paper presents distinctive glass wafer-level fabrication technology that will enhance its properties with respect to pattern recognition system (PRS) at back-end manufacturing for industrial applications. Feasibility of colored glass wafer has been built into proposed conception to manufacture wafer-level packaging. The idea from transparent to colored glass wafer came from manufacturing key challenges that cutting sequence during pattern recognition cannot be distinguished. The proposed solution will mitigate high risk of misaligned cut at wafer sawing and its potential attachment on leadframe during die attach. glass wafer dice, transparent in nature, intermittently encountered multiple PRS assist during Wafer sawing and die attach as it hardly recognizes its cutting positions. Since dependent of machine capability limitations, misaligned cut is inevitable and usually happen occasionally. Addressing its unrecognizable characteristic, proposed colored glass wafer and with visible outline and saw lane fabrication was conceptualized instead of seeking ideal and high equipment model that can differentiate its opaque feature. The colored glass wafer and with visible outline and saw lane naturally creates segmentation visibly and will not be parameter dependent during manufacturing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybrid Based Artificial Intellegence Short –Term Load Forecasting

Kayode O. Adebunmi, Temilola M. Adepoju, Gafari A. Adepoju, Akeem O. Bisiriyu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 75-87
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617330

Electrical power load forecasting, which forms a key element in the power industry's electricity preparation, is used for providing required data for day-to-day system management activities and power utility unit participation. Since the statistical method is a linear model, and the load and meteorological parameters have a nonlinear relationship, the statistical method for load forecasting involves a great calculation time for parameter recognition. Using this tool for load forecasting often results in a major mistake in prediction. Due to the disadvantages of the statistical method of load forecasting Neuro-fuzzy model was used in this work. Three models: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multilinear Regression (MLR) were simulated in MATLAB environment and their output results were compared using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). The ANFIS model outperforms the other models with least errors of RMSE and MAE of 2.2198% and 1.7932% respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Robust Approach of Maintaining Epoxy Position on Die Attach Process of Tapeless QFN Packages

Jerome J. Dinglasan, Leandro D. Saria, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 109-114
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617333

Epoxy quality contributes a great role in defining quality products of quad flat no lead multi row packages. In dealing with certain problems related to epoxy position shift caused by unoptimized design, innovation on the dispenser module is considered and focused at. This paper discusses the phenomenal issue of epoxy position shifting in die attach process and the solutions applied. The current design of dispenser module in die attach machine demonstrates flaws that need to be improved through design optimization. Innovative approach was applied, removing variables on the design that caused rejections during die attachment due to the shifted epoxy position. The improved design was able to address the issue as projected on the study, and helps not only the epoxy position performance, but also the set-up time of epoxy during syringe replacement. This design can be adapted by other manufacturing for process improvement and robustness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Composition of Chlorella vulgaris Grown on Sugarcane Molasses

I. Saidu, G. O. Abu, O. Akaranta, F. O. Chukwuma, S. Vijayalakshmi, J. Ranjitha

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 115-122
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i617334

The quest for green and sustainable biofuel to serve as alternative to the conventional fossil fuel have remained a grey area in biotechnology. The Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from the African Regional Aquacultural Centre Aluu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Sugarcane Molasses modified Bold Basal medium was used to cultivate the Microalgae mixotrophically. The algal culture was incubated at room temperature for 15 days with continuous aeration and 12:12 hour photoperiod under artificial illumination of 2000 lux. The proximate composition of the biomass showed 6.28%wt, 67.37% wt and 11.35%wt of moisture, volatile organic matter and Fixed carbon content respectively. The ultimate composition of Chlorella biomass revealed that Carbon was 42.46% while Oxygen content was 27.93%. Nitrogen content was 6.62% while Sulphur content was 0.82% while hydrogen content was 6.74%. The study further identified that algal biomass from C. vulgaris has the potential of serving as both nutraceuticals and bioenergy feedstock. There is need for further studies around the algae oil oriented optimization as a veritable tool for biotechnological advancements.