Open Access Short Research Article

Robust Control for Die Attach Machine Recipe Management System

Michael D. Capili

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 126-129
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117255

One of the problems facing the Die Attach engineers at Front of Line is the lack of control of their Die Attach Recipes. Currently, all Recipes are stored on a computer that is accessed by all users and transferred to the Die Attach machine using a diskette via a simple file copy operation.

This kind of setup is vulnerable to the tampering of the Recipes, which may lead to problems in the production line, affecting the quality of the product. It is also difficult in the current setup to know which user copied the Recipe or changed its contents, making those activities untraceable. Finally, the manual management of Die Attach Recipes by file copy raises the risk of human error. To increase the quality of production as well as to protect Recipes from tampering, a computer-based program has been developed to fix the issues in the current setup.

The Die Attach Recipe Management System, or DRMS, is a computer program that can do the following: (1) protect the Die Attach Recipes to prevent unauthorized users from accessing and changing them; (2) monitor users who access the Recipes; and (3) simplify the recovery and storage process to eliminate human error problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Dispensing Parameter to Eliminate the Excessive Epoxy Dispense in Die Attach

Michael D. Capili

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117242

Excessive epoxy flow on the dispensing nozzle may result in epoxy tailings due to unoptimized dispensing parameters.  This may cause various problems related to epoxy dispensing, such as epoxy splatter, epoxy on lead, and epoxy bridging. This research study is conducted to eliminate the cause of epoxy related defects. Optimization of dispensing parameter using Design of Experiment as a methodology to reduce the excessive epoxy PPM rate. And base on the DOE main effect plot, excessive epoxy dispense PPM reduces as Snuffback time increases or faster.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cost Analysis of Green Infrastructure Compared to Conventional Stormwater Storage

Pengfei Zhang, Samuel T. Ariaratnam

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 6-19
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117243

Low Impact Development (LID), or green infrastructure, refers to a land planning and engineering design practice to address urban storm runoff. The nature of LID is to mimic the pre-development environment to retain runoff through infiltration, retention, and evaporation. Despite the fact that numerous studies have analyzed the performance of runoff volume reduction and peak flow of various green infrastructures, little is known regarding the economic benefits of adopting LID practices. In this research, three completed construction projects in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area were selected to perform an alternative LID design including extensive green roof (GR) and permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), to determine the cost effectiveness of using LID to reduce the use of a conventional stormwater storage system. A life cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to better understand the cost benefits of applying LID to meet current drainage design criteria as per the project requirements. The results found that applying LID resulted in an average LCC saving rate of 23% compared to a conventional stormwater storage system over a 50 year service life and 15.1% over a full LID (GR+PICP) strategy.  Furthermore, it was discovered that LID has little cost savings benefits when constructing above-ground retention basins due to cheaper associated construction costs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Stabilized Silt Clay Sand with Oil Palm Fibre Bunch (OPFB) Local Fibre for Slope Foundations: A Case of Coastal Soils of Mombasa, Kenya

Jared Kambaga Makone, Ezra Wekesa

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 20-38
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117244

Improvement of shear strength parameters is essential for designing the OPFB fiber mix with silt clay sand for slope stability. The objective of this study was to assess the stabilized silt clay with oil palm fibre bunch (OPFB) local fibre for slope foundation. Series of laboratory tests were conducted on various materials under study and the results revealed that, OPFB mix can be used as an additive to cement for purpose of improving engineering properties of the Silt Clay sand to cut down costs without compromising the set standards. It was established that, the shear strength parameters of the soil-fibre mixture (φ and C) can be improved significantly up to an optimum and reach a certain point where it starts to decline. The shear stress–strain curves obtained from the CU triaxial tests for reinforced sands with 30 mm fibre length together with those for unreinforced silty sand were compared; the result indicated that, fibre-reinforced specimen showed higher deviator stress at 0.25% fibre and reduces at 0.5% fibre. The strain corresponding to the peak deviator stress was increased by fibre content. Patterns of stress–strain curves for all reinforcedsamples indicated improvement in the deviator stress for all compositions and fibre content. Deviator stress of fibre-reinforced soil showed a slight increase with increasing pore pressure. The increase of the fibre content caused an increase in pore water pressure due to inclination of specimens to decrease the volume. Changes in the shear strength of fibre-reinforced soil indicated that soil strength parameters (internal friction angle φ’ and cohesion C’) increase as the internal friction surface increases between fibre and soil at certain point.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Fiber Fines Retention and Mechanical Properties of Board Paper Using Corn and Tapioca Starch- A Handsheet Study

Klaus Doelle, Jonas Sonntag, Kai Fischer, Tyler Dominesey

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 39-50
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117245

Steadily increasing production cost in the paper industry require more efficient resource allocation and utilization of recycled materials and the use of renewable materials and additives to become more environmentally friendly. With this project, 100 g/m² TAPPI handsheets from industrial processed OCC fiber material were produced, without starch and starch in cooked and uncooked form, air-dried at 23°C and contact-dried at 120°C. Starch addition levels were 6.0, 18.0 and 24.0 kg/mt (12.0, 36.0, and 48.0 lbs./st) for pearl and cationic starch, and 2.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kg/mt (4.0, 12.0, and 16.0 lbs./st) for tapioca starch. Fines were measured with a Britt Jar devise having a 75 μm (200 mesh) screen. The highest tensile index improvement of 35.71% for uncooked tapioca starch at an addition rate of 16 lbs./st. The highest tear index improvement of 1.86% was for pearl starch at an addition rate of 12 lbs./st for the cooked & contact dried application. The highest burst index improvement of the produced handsheets was for uncooked & contact dried cationic starch at an addition rate of 12 lbs./st with an improvement of 21.49%. Application of pearl starch showed the largest difference in fines content at the 12 lbs./st and 48 lbs./st of fiber concentrations, reducing the fines content by 22.2% and 24.7% based on solids content respectively. Pearl starch outperformed cationic and tapioca starch products and showed the highest potential for fiber savings and net profit value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Proxy Models for Screening Water Flood and Gas Flood Candidates

Moyosore, Olanipekun, Akpabio, Julius U., Isehunwa, Sunday O.

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117246

Fluid-flood and other improved oil recovery techniques are becoming prominent in global petroleum production because a large proportion of production is from mature oil fields. Although water flooding and gas injection are well established techniques in the industry, several of the screening criteria in literature are discipline which could sometimes be subjective. This work used experimental design techniques to develop proxy models for predicting oil recovery under water-flood and gas-flood conditions.

The objective of the study is to develop a quantitative screening method that would allow for candidates to be evaluated and ranked for water flood or gas injection. The model was applied to some field cases and compared with published models and the well-known Welge Analysis method. The coefficient constants for the oil formation volume factor for water flooding and gas injection was 0.0139 and 0.0434 respectively. Similarly, the coefficient constants for water injection and gas injection for the generated proxy model was -2.34* 10-8 and -6.1 *10-5 respectively. The results show that the proxy models developed are quite robust and can be used for first pass screening of water and gas flood candidates. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Solid Waste Generation and Management in Eziobodo Community, Imo State, Nigeria

Nkeleme Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu, Nwabueze Micheal Anosike, Achigbu Onyemaeze Ikenna

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117247

Solid wastes management is a major problem that has reached alarming proportions requiring drastic measures. The increasing difficulty in managing wastes in Nigeria has become one of the most intractable environmental issues. There is unprecedented increase in the rate of wastes generated by the residents. The cardinal aim of the study is to “ascertain the assessment of solid waste management generated in Eziobodo community, Owerri west, Imo state, Nigeria”. To achieve this aim, 140 copies of questionnaires were administered to the residents of Eziobodo community selected at random sampling. Of these, 112 copies of the questionnaire (80.0%) were returned and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed by simple frequency and presented by percentage. The study revealed among others that: residential buildings accounts for the highest generation source of solid wastes in the community and the solid wastes were predominantly nylon/nylon bags/ nylon sachets; food waste, plastic can/rubbers  arranged in their order of severity. Consequently, the effect of the solid waste in the community were; wide and easy spread of disease vectors, soil pollution and easy breed of flies, rats and mosquitoes. Hence the study recommends, sorting of solid waste before dumping, provision of adequate skips and dustbins and ensuring regular collection of wastes. Finally, potential for a sustainable approach to management of solid wastes such as recycling, reuse, energy recovery and waste reduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Robotization of Tomato Fruits Production to Enhance Food Security

O. Idama, H. Uguru

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117248

The world is facing food insecurity problem due to shortage of workforce and growing world population. Robotization of crop production will help to boost food production, through effective labour conservation. This study was carried out to optimize the performance of tomato fruits’ robotic harvesters, through field practices (pre-harvest treatments). Tomato (Cv. UC82B) was cultivated under four major field practices, which were: control, organic treatment, inorganic treatment using potassium nitrate (KNO3), and combine treatment using the combination of compost manure and KNO3. Tomato fruits were harvested at the pink maturity stage and were subjected to compression test, using the Universal Testing Machine, at three compression speeds of 15 mm/min, 20 mm/min and 25 mm/min. Results obtained from the study showed that, field practices and compression speed significantly (p ≤0.05) affected the failure parameters (failure force, failure energy and deformation) of the tomato fruits. Regardless of the compression speed, the fruits produced with combined treatment had the highest failure parameters; while the control fruits developed the least failure parameters.  Tomato fruit produced using the combined treatment developed failure force, failure energy and deformation of 87.60 N, 701.97 and 16.88 mm respectively. In the terms of the compression speed, the study revealed that the ability of the fruits to absolved compression force declined significantly, as the compression speed increased from 15 mm/min to 25 mm/min, across the four treatments regimes. These results will be useful during the programming and application of automatic tomato fruits harvesting robots, to optimize their efficiency, hence improving food security condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis and Regenerative Studies of Alkaline Modified Groundnut Shell as Adsorbent for the Removal of Oil Layer from Polluted Water

Okoro Sylvanus Ezenwa, Nwabueze Henrietta Ogochukwu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 76-86
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117251

This work focuses on the comparative analysis and regenerative studies of alkaline modified groundnut shell as adsorbent for the removal of oil layer from water surface. The groundnut shell was carbonized at 800°C before chemical activation. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and UV/VIS Spectrophotometer were used in characterizing the adsorbents. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to determine the effect of process conditions on the percentage removal. Regeneration studies was applied to investigate the reusability of the adsorbent after each batch of experiments. SEM characterization revealed that micro porous space on the surface of the adsorbent (groundnut shell) increased significantly after activation. The surface area of the composite increased from 28.5cm2 to 87.9cm2 after activation. pH of point zero charge ranging from  to  revealed negative charge predominance on the surface of the adsorbents and adsorption was found to be very fast at low pH due to strong electrostatic force between oil layer and ion diffusion on the adsorbent surface. The optimum adsorption time was found to be 100 minutes with 79.4% oil pH of 6.9. Regeneration of the adsorbent after each batch of experiments shows that the surface area remained intact at 77.8cm2 which is almost equal to the modified (unused) adsorbent. Experiments with the regenerated adsorbent shows that 84.89% of oil was removed at oil water ratio of 0.2g/100cm3 against 88.56% of oil removed using the modified adsorbent at the same oil water ratio.  Thus, the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous, rapid and showed high performance with a proven ability of the adsorbent to be regenerated after use. However, the present approach has the advantage of simplicity, less time consuming and most importantly, low cost considering the availability of groundnut shell at no cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Group Integration Method in Integral Calculus at the College of Engineering University of Eastern Philippines

Eladio B. Jao Jr., Benjamin D. Varela

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 87-100
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117252

This study intended to determine the effect of Group Integration Method on academic performance in Integral Calculus at the College of Engineering University of Eastern Philippines.

It employed a quasi-experimental design that involved two sections of second year BSEE students enrolled in Integral Calculus in the College of Engineering. The students in these sections were comparable since their pre-test on a 1-1 scoring system were not significantly different using the t-test of independent sample at 0.05 level of significance in Integral Calculus ability of the students between the control and experimental group.

The average pre-test scores per class were determined to set the experimental and control group. The former bears the lower average scores, which needs more attention through cooperative learning among group members while the latter bears the higher ones since the students can handle individual learning. The individual pre-test scores were used in the categorization of the students in both control and experimental groups. The scores were ranked and categorized into three (3): the High Performer (HP), the Average Performer (AP) and the low Performer (LP).

The result showed that most of the respondents for both groups are males, first timers and average students with respect to differential calculus academic performance. As to the age bracket, the data shows majority of the students were (18-20) years old.     

The outcomes of the study further showed that the respondents exposed to the Integration Method and Traditional Method had the overall interpretation of failed rating at the start of the study. As the study progressed 8 respondents from the Group Integration and 12 respondents were added in Traditional method above failing stage considering the post-test administered to both groups.

The T-test at 0.05 level of significance stressed out that post-test and combined tests for pre-test/post-test significantly differs for both Group Integration and Traditional methods of instruction.

Finally, as to the academic performance, Group Integration is better than Traditional Methods of Instruction. This implies that the intervention aided the students to boost their skills in Integral calculus under the experimental group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bond Pad Probe Marks Effect on Intermetallic Coverage

Anthony Moreno, Rennier Rodriguez, Frederick Ray Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 101-106
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117253

The paper presents a study on the effect of semiconductor die’s bond pad probe marks on the interface between the wire and the bond pad. The probe marks are quantified in terms of percentage area in the bond pad, while the interface strength between the wire of Gold material to the Aluminum bond pad is measured through the intermetallic coverage (IMC). Actual evaluation showed that the size of the probe marks has significant impact on the bond pad area, especially on IMC. Validations were made comparing the IMC and shear strength performance of the wire ball bonded on the worst-case probe marks and on the standard probe marks. The learnings on this study could be used on future works with similar requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing the Tensile Strength of Polystyrene Lightweight Concrete: A Panacea for Sustainable Housing Development in Developing Countries

S. E. Ubi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 107-125
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117254

The use of polystyrene beads in concrete applications has been limited due to its perceived low strength properties. Tensile strength test is an important test that determines the vulnerability of concrete to tensile cracking due to the weight of the structural load. Water, sand, coarse aggregates, expanded polystyrene beads, and ordinary Portland cement are the materials used for this study. All the materials were batched according to their weight, except for polystyrene and coarse aggregates which were batched in volume after mixing them together. The polystyrene partial replacement level was considered at 12% of the coarse aggregate volume. The model equation adopted for this study was based on Scheffe’s {4, 2} simplex lattice design for both Pseudo component and component proportional models. The actual model was developed from the 28th day test result. The Mathlab and Minitab 16 software were used in this study to generate the actual mix ratios. The results obtained showed that both Pseudo component and component proportional models both produced an average split tensile strength of about 5.10N/mm2. This implied that the results of this study produced a split tensile strength result that varied between 18% - 19% of its compressive strength result. This showed that the materials and the mix ratios optimized in this study are suitable as building blocks for residential low rising buildings and as partition slaps for high rising buildings. The lightweight property makes it highly suitable for large scale application in high rising structures as internal partition slaps only.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chicken Feather Ash (CFA) as a Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Victor Emeka Amah, Ejikeme Ugwoha, Jahswill Macaulay

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117256

Every day, large quantities of chicken feathers are disposed of as waste at markets where birds are slaughtered and sold for meat. The possibility of using Chicken feather ash (CFA) as a partial replacement of cement in the concrete making was investigated. Water-cement ratio and percentage CFA used for replacement were chosen as variables in the design of the experiment. Compressive strength and workability were chosen as the required responses to observe and analyzed using response surface methodology. Full factorial design was used for the design of experiment, with CFA replacement and water-cement ratio ranging from 2 – 11% and 0.3 – 0.7 % by mass respectively. There were 27 trial mixes and the freshly made concrete mix was tested for workability. Concrete cubes were molded and cured for 7 and 14 days and were crushed to determine the compressive strength. It was found that as the CFA percentage increases, the workability of the concrete increases making it more fluid. The optimum water-cement ratio was observed to range from 0.49 to 0.51 % as the curing age increases. The optimum compressive strength was observed to range from 15.6 to 18.6 N/mm2 as the curing age increased. However, the allowable range of CFA to be used for concrete making is 3.8 to 6.34 % beyond which compressive strength reduces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Upgrading Die Attach Epoxy Dispensing Mechanism

Michael D. Capili

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 141-148
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117257

This research paper addressed how to improve the Die Attach Pneumatic Time-Pressure Dispensing Valve. Different assessment and statistical validation comparing the efficiency of the Pneumatic Time-Pressure Dispensing Valve and Dispensing Volume Reduction. The Musashi Super Ʃ CMIII Dispenser with Sigma function controller provides more choices for regulating the volume of dispensing, since the residual material in the syringe decreases, and can be a more suitable method for dispensing glue. The consistency of the glue volume will be more consistent after the implementation of this update. This controller has the option to compensate for pressure and vacuum as the remaining fluid in the syringe decreases. The Musashi dispenser controller is equipped with an empty syringe detection system. As the remaining adhesive, this will avoid variations in dispensed volume.

Open Access Original Research Article

Finite Element Analyses of Automobile Crankshaft Using ANSYS

Miloud Souiyah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 149-158
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i117258

Finite Element Method (FEM) of failure analysis was developed on automobile crankshaft, to determine the stress distribution and the fatigue life, by using ANSYS software. Further, an analytical analysis is applied, Measure the crankshaft stress life. A study was performed on some of the Honda CR-V engine components, specifically are crankshaft, the connecting rod, and the piston.  Upon the finite element analysis, it was found that the fillet areas of the crankshaft are the most critical locations where high stresses were generated in these areas. Moreover, with/without considering torsional force acting on the crankshaft does not appear to have any major effects on the stress experience by the crankshaft. In addition, the location where the crack initiated, and fatigue failure starts is located at one of the crankpin journal fillet areas. Indeed, the crankshaft critical areas are mostly affected by uniaxial stress. Moreover, the prediction of the crankshaft fatigue life by using the strain-life theory gives the overall most conservative fatigue life results.