Open Access Original Research Article

Pick and Place Process Defect Mitigation on Semiconductor BGA Device

Antonio R. Sumagpang Jr., Frederick Ray I. Gomez, Edwin M. Graycochea Jr.

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v17i317187

With the new devices and new technologies in semiconductor industry are getting more challenging to process because of new processes and process bricks. One of the most challenging assembly processes is the pick and place or the die attach process. Issues were encountered during product development phase of a semiconductor ball grid array (BGA) device of radio frequency (RF) applications and one of which is the “thrown” dies during die picking. This paper is focused on addressing the thrown dies issue at pick and place process. Installation of blower ionizer on the machine is an extensive improvement done to eliminate the foreign materials resulting to thrown dies during picking. With this improvement, a reduction of around 80 percent of thrown dies was achieved. For future works, the improvement and learnings could be used for devices with similar requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Fastening Loads in Road Transport

Piotr Gorzelanczyk, Martyna Kujawa

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 6-27
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v17i317188

Introduction: The topic of the article is "Analysis of cargo securing in road transport". It consists of an analytical part and a research part, the assumption of which is to conduct a survey among people who have passed a number of requirements allowing to obtain the title of a professional driver. The subject of the work is the analysis of the most important issues related to cargo securing and securing means used in road transport of cargo, which are supported by the relevant legal acts [1,2].

Aims: The aim of the research was to analyze the securing of loads in road transport and to check the knowledge of drivers of heavy goods vehicles professionally transporting loads by road on a given topic. The respondents are both drivers employed in nearby transport companies (Zakład Rolniczo-Przemysłowego "Farmutil HS", PHUS Eksport-Import Transpil Spedition Waldemar Bocheński, PUH "Gólcz i Sons" Mieczysław Gólcz, Martrans, AGA-Guderski Transport & Logistyka) and drivers, who are members of transport groups on Facebook The research lasted 3 months and covered the period from January 7, 2020 to April 7, 2020.

Research Object: The subject of research is a number of issues related to loads on the means of transport, i.e. legal regulations, fastening accessories, methods of fastening. Drivers answering according to their knowledge reveal a practical perspective on securing and transporting loads. The three-month survey period resulted in 230 forms returned. The majority of respondents are men in the number of 214 people (93%). Only 16 women took part in the survey, which constitutes 7% of all respondents. The difference between the representatives of both sexes is great, which suggests that the profession of a driver is performed to a greater extent by men. Education can be a factor indicating the level of knowledge of the respondent. More than half of the respondents declared their education as secondary - 135 people (59%), then 48 people (21% chose the answer higher, basic - 39 people (17%), primary - 6 people (2%). 2 people (1%) completed their education at lower secondary school. Due to the length of service, the respondents can be divided into 6 groups. The most numerous group of 88 people (38%) are drivers who have been working in the profession for one to four years. Among the respondents there were 60 people (26%) with 5-10 years of work experience, then 43 people (19%) working 11-20 years, 24 people (10%) working less than a year, while 11 people (5%) were employed with transporting loads from 21 to 30 years. Only 4 people (2%) of the respondents can boast over 30 years of professional experience. The total length of the employment periods should indicate the level of knowledge and experience gained. The graph shows that drivers with various years of service took part in the survey, which has a positive impact on the accuracy of the results. In conclusion, the largest group of people was respondents who answered 1-4 years, which means that the road transport department has developed, and this resulted in an increase in the demand for people authorized to drive heavy goods vehicles.

Methodology: Before the actual study, a pilot study was performed. It was aimed at acquiring preliminary knowledge about the studied community and testing the correctness of the questionnaire. A questionnaire survey was used to conduct the research. There were 15 single-choice closed questions and 10 open-ended questions in the survey. Some questions included photos. The complete questionnaire was made available through the Facebook social network on transport thematic groups gathering professional drivers and delivered to the transport companies previously discussed.

Results: The survey was aimed at extracting the knowledge of professional drivers traveling both in Poland and other European countries about the securing of loads in road transport. The questionnaires included a properly prepared pool of questions and research techniques, which are also important for the accuracy and reliability of the research. The questions were arranged and edited in a clear and legible manner for the respondent, both in electronic and paper form. The tools used are closed-ended questions and open-ended questions with photos. The main part of the study was conducted on 230 respondents. It turned out that drivers do not have sufficient knowledge in the area in which they operate on a daily basis. Some drivers refused to answer the questionnaires, even knowing that their answers would be anonymous or they had no knowledge about it. As the survey shows, more than half of the respondents did not participate in any educational form related to cargo securing. The problem may result from the savings of the people managing the enterprise, as well as the reluctance of drivers to improve their own qualifications. Most of the respondents do not use the aids and measuring instruments available on the market to check the necessary amount of fixing means to ensure the safety of other road users. The tabular or template method of determining the number of lashings eliminates the need to use mathematical formulas, which could be problematic for some professional drivers. These are measures that improve the work and make it easier without the need to perform complex calculations. In the course of the research, difficulties arose in the form of the apparent reluctance of professional drivers to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. Unfortunately, some companies also refused to take part in the survey. It can be assumed that this was caused by the fear of the consequences that could be drawn by the legislator or the fear of the overall result of the study in the case of a specific company.

Conclusion: It is required from transport to be effective, and thus profitable and safe, and it is conditioned by the proper securing of the cargo. To sum up, it can be stated that the essence of securing loads in road transport is the appropriate selection of securing means, securing methods and available security systems so that the cargo with a specific weight, shape, plasticity and other own characteristics is immobilized on a properly selected loading surface and prevents its movement. The material collected in the course of the research and the analyzes carried out show that professional drivers have insufficient knowledge in the field of load securing. The problem of poor knowledge of the subject, externalized among drivers, is a significant problem that may lead to dangerous road situations and may generate unnecessary costs in the enterprise. In this situation, its managers should react. An example of a response to such signals may be the employment of a person providing consultancy services in the field of cargo securing, training or audits in transport companies. Retraining professional drivers or organizing training for those who are just taking their first steps in the profession is crucial. A person who becomes aware of the scale of the risk and shows the visual effects of road accidents with greater diligence and accuracy will secure the load that has been assigned to him and make sure that he drives to the road with a vehicle that does not pose a threat. Lashing loads is a field of transport in which an individual approach should be taken to the load taken for transport. Standard mathematical formulas are helpful for this. But not all charges can be formulated and act schematically. Various loads of different shapes, sizes and other own characteristics are a challenge for people responsible for their safe transport. The driver carrying the load can make sure that it has been properly secured, without the need to use complicated mathematical formulas. It may turn out to be problematic for him, which is why publications have been made to facilitate these issues. Each type of trailer has a different security method. The driver, acquiring the license, is obliged to have knowledge in this topic and the translation of the lack of competence is groundless. On the current labor market, entrepreneurs dynamically develop their fleet following the prospect of a potential customer, which results in the transport of various goods. They are looking for specialized drivers with skills, failure to improve qualifications may result in job loss. Load securing is a field of transport that is constantly expanding its range. Demanding from the people involved to create innovative  solutions to emerging problems posed by loads during transport. The guarantee of the  search for the most effective methods of fastening and auxiliary devices is the growing transport and the willingness to transport various loads. To conclude the considerations undertaken in this paper, it should be stated that the common goal of people involved in the transport of goods should be to improve the safety of all road users and to comply with applicable road regulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Die Attach Film Bleed out Resolution through Process Optimization on DFN Packages

Bryan Christian S. Bacquian, Edwin M. Graycochea Jr., Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 28-32
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v17i317189

The development of new technology with thinner and smaller packages has become the movement and focus on semiconductor assembly industry. This paper presents an improvement done in dual-flat no-leads (DFN) package to resolve the quantity of rejection due to die attach film (DAF) bleed out on the die paddle of the leadframe. This reject manifestation was seen after die attach process. Parameter optimization particularly for the bonding with the combination of bond force and bond time parameter was done to eliminate this type of issue after die attach process. With this die attach process optimization and improvement done, DAF bleed out occurrence was eliminated with 100% reduction improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Associating Unemployment with Panic Attack Using Deep Learning during COVID-19

Shawni Dutta, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v17i317190

Corona Virus Infectious Disease (COVID-19) is newly emerging infectious disease. It is known to the world in late 2019. Due to this, the mental health of employees is disturbed. There is always a fear of unemployment amongst employees due to the present scenario of lockdown. This may even create a panic attack. It has been happening rapidly during COVID-19. It has a great effect on human health. This paper analyses multiple factors that have an impact on causing panic attacks. Deep Learning techniques are explored which detects panic disorders on people. Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based deep learning framework is utilized in this paper that assembles multiple RNN layers along with other hyper-parameters into a single model. This method is implemented by capturing interfering factors and predicts the panic attack tendency of people during COVID-19. Early prediction of panic attacks may assist in saving life from unwanted circumstances. It is also observed that comparative study between MLP and stacked-RNN classifier indicates significantly better results of proposed model over MLP classifier in terms of evaluating metrics.

Open Access Review Article

Abating Biomechanical Risks: A Comparative Review of Ergonomic Assessment Tools

Kuok Ho Daniel Tang

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v17i317191

Ergonomic assessment tools are crucial for evaluation of biomechanical risk factors at workplaces to understand the contributing factors and reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) which have negative implications on employees’ health and productivity. This review examines a range of methods and ergonomic assessment tools. It shows ergonomic assessment tools, particularly postural analysis to comprise self-reports from workers, observation methods, direct measurement method and advanced techniques for assessment of postural change in executing highly dynamic activities. These tools have been designed for different work activities consisting typically of manual handing, repetitive tasks and static loading. Some of the tools target at specific body parts while others at multiple body parts. The tools have the strengths particularly in the assessment of recurring tasks in standing or sitting postures involving specific or multiple body parts. However, the tools also have obvious limitations in terms of not considering vibration, contact stress and trauma to other body parts for tools assessing specific body parts, and undifferentiated weight of different ergonomic risks for whole-body tools. These strengths and shortcomings prompt a user to consider the job nature and tasks to be assessed prior to selecting the tools. This review advocates an integrated approach in ergonomic assessment using a combination of general and specific methods with direct measurements if permissible. It contributes to the accurate selection of the postural analysis tools through systematically presenting their features and limitations besides highlighting improvement of methods and approaches in ergonomic assessment.