Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Backgrinding Tape Lamination on Die Alignment

Bryan Christian Bacquian, Frederick Ray Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i417129

The continuing growth and development on semiconductor package miniaturization have become a particular interest and focus semiconductor industry. The importance of thinner packages also demands a thinner vertical structure of the integrated circuit (IC) design with silicon die or the wafer playing essential role in package thinning. As the wafer goes thinner, problems may occur in the wafer preparation or pre-assembly. With the introduction of new wafer preparation technologies such as dicing before grinding and laser die attach film (DAF) cut, technical challenges were inevitable. The paper focused on the effect of backgrinding tape lamination on die alignment. Tensionless lamination helped eliminate the horizontal pressure applied into the tape thus mitigating the die mis-alignment problem.  For future works, the configuration could be applied on wafers with similar technology and/or application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Study of a Developed Automated Cooking System

I. T. Ucheoma, K. O. Chilakpu, N. R. Nwakuba, N. C. Ezeanya

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 5-19
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i417130

Aims: To identify the heat energy, timing along with other cooking parameters required for cooking rice, beans, okra and yam using the gas, electric and automated cooker respectively.

Study Design: The studied automated cooking system was digitally calibrated to ensure the best operation of the various receptacles for adding ingredients such as the cylindrical dispenser, reciprocating dispenser besides the precision fluid dispensing unit synchronized with the automatic opening and closing of the receiver lid (Pot).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria, between October 2018 and November 2019.

Methodology: The performance evaluation of the automated cooking system was done after the selected food samples (rice, beans, yam and okra) were cooked manually with the electric and gas cookers respectively. The major cooking parameters measured and analyzed were the volume of water used, quantity of food and ingredients, temperatures and heating energies of the cooking systems, overall cooking time for food samples and the time for adding ingredients and water into the food being cooked.

Results: The experimental results show that the cooking time required to prepare 200 g of the studied food samples namely; rice, beans, yam and okra soup using the electric cooker, gas cooker and the automated cooker were; 50 mins, 69 mins, 30 mins, and 17 mins (for electric cooker); 51 mins, 72 mins, 34 mins and 19 mins (for gas cooker); 45 mins, 64 mins, 25 mins and 14 mins (for automated cooker) respectively. The heating energy data computed for the food samples were: 199 kJ, 416.72 kJ, 182.2 kJ and 516 kJ for okra, beans, yam and rice using the automated system. It was revealed that the thermal efficiencies of the automated cooking system is higher than the thermal efficiencies of other cooking system (electric and gas cookers). The adiabatic nature of the enclosed automated system makes cooking more hygienic and faster due to increased heat energy utilization. Model equations were derived for predicting the heating energy and time required for cooking and to soften these food samples using gas cookers, electric cookers and in subsequent automated cookers. The cooking information obtained from the experiments streamlines a generic recipe and the requirements for cooking different foods with the auto-cooker and has greatly simplified the process of cooking.

Conclusion: The automated cooking system offers a significant benefit to the users who have time limitations. The findings from this work may be applied for the commercial production of automated cookers as prospect of modification and further studies could be explored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metallized Semiconductor Die for Long Wire Interconnect

Frederick Ray I. Gomez, Rennier S. Rodriguez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 20-24
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i417131

This paper focused on the integration of metallized silicon die in design layout of quad-flat no-leads package (QFN) and ball grid array (BGA) devices. The metallized silicon die is fabricated with a conductive top layer where the junction for wire interconnection is created. The conductive top layer formed an intermetallic connection between the gold or copper wire and aluminum metal on the conductive outer layer to produce electrical continuity in the device circuitry. Incorporating the design on conventional QFN and BGA eliminates long wiring layout in the system that is the primary cause of electrical shorting rejection during integrated circuit assembly and testing. For subsequent works, the design could be applied for packages with similar requirement and/or configuration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Company Strategies on Organisational Performance in Nigerian Construction Industry

U. V. Alintah- Abel, N. B. Iheama, S. C. Ugochukwu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i417132

Changes in the environment such as customers’ preferences and choices has put the companies on toes with each firm fighting for its survival and all is based on strategies choice and their implementation. Thus, Nigerian construction companies have to adopt and apply appropriate strategies to be more competitive in this industry and get success in their businesses. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of company strategies on organisational performance in Nigerian construction industry. The conceptual framework was provided to give a guideline on how both independent and dependent variables will interact in other to get the impact of companies’ strategies on performance. Primary data with the aid of a structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents. The data collected were analysed using both descriptive such as percentages and mean and inferential statistics of regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that construction companies adopt several company strategies at various levels; however, the strategies are generally applied moderately in the firms. The study deduced that both growth strategies and generic strategies have positive significant impact on performance. The study recommended that policy makers and the management of the construction firms should adopt a mix of the competitive strategies since both have positive impact on performance and there is need for companies to intensify their applications since it will spur performance in the organisation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Energy and Cost Performance of Retrofitting Fluorescent Tubes with Compact Fluorescent and Light Emitting Diode Lamps

J. S. Adeleke, A. B. Wahab, E. A. Olanipekun

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 34-46
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i417133

Over the years, visual comfort has been described as a major requirement needed to enhance optimal performance of occupants in any learning environment in tertiary institutions. This is reflected in the poor performance of the commonly used Fluorescent Lamps (FL) occasioned by its constant burn-off, high failure rate and reduced durability. Hence, there is a shift to the adoption of Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and Light Emitting Diode (LED). This study therefore examined the pattern of electricity consumption involving the adoption of FL, CFL and LED in the purposively selected lecture theatres of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study was carried out using energy monitor to obtain the consumption data of the lamps for periodic logging at intervals of 1 hr, 3 hrs, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 1 day, 7 days, 1 month and 3 months respectively; and also to determine the payback period of each of the lamps. From the data collected, patterns of electricity used, electricity savings were calculated and compared to establish performance potentials of each of the lamps. The study found that there was a significant difference in the pattern of electricity consumption of FLs compared with that of CFLs and LEDs, but a reduced margin existed between CFLs and LED lamps. It showed that the FLs consumed 681.576 kWh, 1619.466 kWh and 5652.432 kWh, CFLs consumed 387.302 kWh, 692.479 kWh and 1936.600 kWh, while LED consumed 294.188 kWh, 426.608 kWh and 1499.015 kWh. There were significant differences in consumption with 43, 47 and 65% reduction in electricity consumption using CFLs while 57, 73 and 73% using LED fittings were obtained. The CFLs performed better in terms of return on investments by having a lower payback period when compared to LED. The study concluded that replacing FL with CFL and LED would be desirable option in order to enhance optimal performance of lecture theatres, but in terms of payback period, it would be beneficial to retrofit FLs with CFLs.