Open Access Short Research Article

ESD Diode Protection Incorporated on Leadframe Package

Frederick Ray I. Gomez, Edwin M. Graycochea Jr., Nerie R. Gomez, Rennier S. Rodriguez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 30-33
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i317126

With the new die technology becomes smaller and thinner, silicon die circuit metallization also becomes smaller, thus electronic devices like quad-flat no-leads multi-row (QFN-mr) semiconductor leadframe package design become more sensitive and prone to electrostatic discharge (ESD) damages. This paper focused and introduced an additional surface mount technology by attaching diodes before and after diebonding process to protect the whole package and to prevent package related issues encountered. With this diode attached on the silicon die and leads, added protection could be achieved on the integrated circuit (IC) mounted on the circuit board level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Optimization of Exergy Efficiency of a Crude Distillation Unit Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Response Surface Methods (RSM)

M. N. Braimah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i317123

The study carried out simulation of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) of the New Port Harcourt Refinery (NPHR) and performed exergy analysis of the Refinery. The Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) of the New Port Harcourt refinery was simulated using HYSYS (2006.5).

The Atmospheric Distillation Unit (ADU) which is the most inefficient unit and where major separation of the crude occurs was focused on. The simulation result was exported to Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet for exergy analysis. The ADU was optimized using statistical method and Artificial Neural Network. Box-Behnken model was applied to the sensitive operating variables that were identified. The statistical analysis of the RSM was carried out using Design Expert (6.0). Matlab software was used for the Artificial Neural Network. All the operating variables were combined to give the best optimum operating conditions.

Exergy efficiency of the ADU was 51.9% and 52.4% when chemical exergy was included and excluded respectively. The optimum operating conditions from statistical optimization (RSM) are 586.1 K for liquid inlet temperature, 595.5 kPa for liquid inlet pressure and condenser pressure of 124 kPa with exergy efficiency of 69.6% which is 33.0% increment as compared to the base case.

For the ANN optimization, the exergy efficiency of the ADU was estimated to be 70.6%. This gave an increase of 34.9% as compared to the base case.

This study concluded that enormous improvement can be achieved both in design feasibility and improved efficiency if the feed operating parameters and other sensitive parameters are carefully chosen. Furthermore, ANN optimization gave better exergy efficiency of 70.6% than RSM optimization of 69.6%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Specialized Lead Design of Leadframe Packages for Improved Mold Adhesion

Frederick Ray Gomez, Rennier Rodriguez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 15-19
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i317124

This paper presents an advanced design of Quad-Flat No-leads (QFN) and Quad-Flat Package (QFP) leadframe to mitigate the propagation of delamination between high stress level areas particularly the mold-to-leads interface. The integration of through-hole mechanism on leadframe provides mechanical anchoring of mold material to the lead junction interface and/or vice versa. To produce interlocking, the through-hole design will be penetrated by the epoxy mold compound during conventional molding process affixing each individual lead to the encapsulation material. On the other hand, the package design is materialized through repeated cycle of chemical etching and masking process during leadframe manufacturing, the mechanical anchoring can be implemented on the conventional design of carriers. This approach, considering the design and assembly method of the new leadframe design, is a cost-effective alternative in improving the interfaces of key material such as mold and leadframe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Construction of an Electrically Operated Paint Mixing Machine

Ikponmwosa Iyobosa Omorusi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i317125

An electrically operated paint-mixing machine was developed. The machine consisted of a mixing drum with a capacity of 30.6 L. The test was carried out by mixing 25%, 50%, and 75% of the total mixing capacity of the machine, and the time taken for the constituents to be thoroughly mixed were recorded. The mixer member (agitator) was used to mix the paint components by the use of an electric motor. For easy mixing of denser paint components i.e. paints with high viscosity, particularly oil-based (or enamel) paint, a hydraulic lift, with a travel height (distance) of about 40 cm, was introduced to move the mixing disc vertically in the upward (up to a height of 19 cm above the drum) and downward direction (up to a height of 15 cm above the bottom of the drum) to prevent clogging of the paint components while mixing. The hydraulic mechanism also allows the operator to remove the drum after mixing as well as to install the drum in place before starting the mixing operation. The machine was powered with a 0.74 hp (550 W) electric motor, which transmitted the rotary motion of the driving component through a V-belt to the driven component which was supported with two bearings. The test results obtained from the running of the machine showed that the time taken to mix thoroughly 30.6 L of paint constituents was 102 minutes. This was done to study the reliability and the time taken to accomplish the thorough mixing of the paint components. To achieve this, the volume of paint constituents (L) ranged from 10.2 L at 35 minutes to 30.6 L at 102 minutes. This finding elucidates the ability to tackle the problems of mixing paint locally by hand and by manually operated machines, which are not only primitive but both time and energy consuming, and as well serves as an innovation in the paint industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Material Selection for Subsea Pipeline Construction under Uncertainties for Niger Delta Region

N. E. Udosoh, Clement Idiapho, Sani Awwal

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i317128

This research work on material selection for subsea pipeline construction was carried out to analyze and recommend suitable material option that satisfies DNV-OS-F101 standard for subsea pipeline constructions which will not succumb to extreme conditions and performs well in unpredictable conditions in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Crude oil is mainly transported through pipelines, structural failure of the pipelines will severely affect oil production processes and will cause huge economic loss. Data on oil pipeline failures in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were gathered and the major causes were; corrosion, operational error, third party activities and mechanical failures which were associated with the construction materials and structures of the pipelines. Hence, material selection for subsea pipelines is of vital importance. This paper makes use of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) Theory to make fuzzy evaluation of different material options for pipeline construction. Statistical data and experts’ knowledge were integrated in addressing data limitation. This paper utilizes related weights and normalized scores based on experts’ judgements and with the aid of value engineering (VE) method, material criteria based on DNV-OS-F101 standard and TOPSIS Theory to achieve the best material option. The analysis has demonstrated that the estimation of TOPSIS is reliable. The outcome obtained can be used to assist the decision maker in the selection of the best material option suitable for the construction of subsea pipeline in Niger Delta region.