Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Upper A Arm of Double Wishbone Suspension System

M. Amarnath, K. Sriram Prasad, Jeevan Babyloni

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i217118

Every All-Terrain vehicle right now uses independent suspension system which consists of double wishbones connected to all the tires. As All-Terrain vehicles generally operated on different road conditions it is an absolute necessity to have a robust design of wish bones. A good deformation rate and good FOS determines how good a design. In this study we have designed three types of upper wishbones in Solid Works whose suspension geometry based on wheel base, track width, roll center and pith center of the vehicle is validated in LOTUS software and the following graphs of camber, castor, toe, kingpin inclination are obtained. Linear static structural analysis is performed on all the three types designed in Ansys software and total deformation rate, equivalent stresses generated and FOS is calculated and the based on the results the best design is used for the vehicle. The design provided greater suspension travel, reducing the un-sprung mass of the vehicle, maximizing the performance of the suspension system of the vehicle and better handling of vehicle while cornering. The design is used in SAE BAJA 2020 competition Conducted in Chitkara University Punjab.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bond Line Thickness Characterization for QFN Package Robustness

Bryan Christian S. Bacquian, Edwin M. Graycochea Jr, Frederick Ray I. Gomez, Rennier S. Rodriguez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 15-19
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i217119

The paper focused on the evaluation of quad-flat no-leads (QFN) semiconductor package with small silicon die on different machine platforms to achieve a higher bond line thickness (BLT) of greater than 30 µm. The characterization or evaluation was narrowed down into two main diebonding machines with the objective of attaining a higher BLT for small die. High BLT capability is desired to generate clearance for the shrinkage of the glue, henceforth mitigating the glue voids. Diebond Machine 2 was able to achieve the target BLT with 30.89 µm average compared to 18.25 µm for Machine 1. Moreover, the target BLT range could only be achieved in Machine 2 only. For future works, the machine and configuration could be used for devices with comparable requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Positioning the Nigerian Construction Industry and Desiderata for Global Competitiveness in the 21st Century

K. C. Okolie, F. O. Ezeokoli, D. O. Fadumo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 20-31
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i217120

The research evaluates the drivers toward positioning Nigerian construction industry for global competitiveness in the 21st century. Being a survey research, questionnaires containing information relating to issues and drivers on global competitiveness were administered to selected construction practitioners in Anambra State, Nigeria. Accordingly, a total of 84 questionnaires were administered out of which 80 copies were completed, returned and found useful.  This corresponds to a response rate of 95%. Data collected were analyzed and presented using mean score, percentages, relative importance index (RII) and tables. The study found that the identified twelve (12) drivers of global competitiveness were all significant in the study area. However, the most perceived significant drivers for global competitiveness in the study area is labour market efficiency. Also, the study observed that the Nigerian construction industry operates at the level of factor-driven economy. Therefore, the study concluded by recommending that construction firms must   find appropriate strategies that would help to improve and strengthen their digital innovation, institutional, technological and infrastructural needs. This will place them in good standing for global competitiveness in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Die Attach Process Optimization with Enhanced Epoxy Control on Leadframe Package

Rennier S. Rodriguez, Edwin M. Graycochea Jr, Rammil A. Seguido, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i217121

The paper presents a practical procedure in selecting the best candidate for die attach epoxy control or anti-epoxy bleed-out (anti-EBO) concentration during the introduction of new leadframe configuration. Three different criteria were implemented to measure the relative impact of the anti-EBO into the different interfaces inside a quad-flat no-leads multi-row (QFN-mr) leadframe unit. Die shear test is performed to measure the shear strength and the compatibility of the anti-EBO to the adhesive material. EBO measurement is performed herewith to study the propagation of epoxy bleed-out on the surface of the leadframe with reference to the different level of anti-EBO concentration. Package reliability is employed study the response of different interfaces directly in-contact with anti-EBO through thermal-cycling scenario. Ultimately, understanding the effect of anti-EBO into different set of tests provided a systematic way of selecting appropriate leadframe parameters for QFN-mr leadframe product.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Sustainable Patterns in Iranian Underground Architecture

Mahsa Faramarzi, Mohammad Reza Nemati Nasab, Amir Reza Mohammadi, Reza Vahedi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v14i217122

Iranian native architects created many innovations at different levels of altitude in the past, using various sources and natural clean energies in order to create natural adaptation in different climate climates. Garden Pit and Shawadan are among examples. These underground elements have created a pleasant atmosphere in high temperate and humid environments by utilizing the high thermal capacity of the soil. Time-lapse and inappropriate use of technological advances have led to the neglect of indigenous methods and unlimited use of fossil fuels. Shawadan and Garden Pit are two elements of underground architecture where Shawadan is used in a warm and humid climate and garden pits are used in the warm and dry climate. These architectural elements are often found in Yazd and Kashan cities as desert cities (warm and dry) and Dezful and Shushtar are built on the Gulf coast due to weather conditions. The study aimed to re-read and adapt these elements in terms of functional similarities using analytical-descriptive library method.