Open Access Original Research Article

Simple Optical Measurements of Pre-treated Surface Roughness for Thermal Spray

Yukihiko Yamagata, Ryo Iwasaka, Keita Shigyo, Juntaro Tanaka, Yasuyuki Kawaguchi, Katsunori Muraoka

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217095

For achieving satisfactory performance of coating layers obtained using the thermal spray technique, pre-treatments are carried out by roughening the smooth surfaces of metals to more than a few tens of μm.  Although a surface roughness tester is reliable for quantitatively measuring the surface roughness, it requires expertise and a long measuring time.  In the present article, a simple optical method is presented which the authors hope will replace the above surface roughness tester. The proposed method relies on first projecting a narrow beam of light from a light-emitting diode obliquely over the roughened surface, and then on measuring the distortion of the light as observed perpendicular to the surface.  Proof-of-principle experiments were performed first against a surface roughness comparator, and then against actual blasted surfaces using both the optical method and the surface roughness tester, yielding the two methods to be in good agreement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leachate Characterization from Municipal Solid Waste Dump Site and Its Adverse Impacts on Surface Water Quality Downstream - Uyo Village Road, Akwa Ibom State - Nigeria

S. A. Nta, M. J. Ayotamuno, A. H. Igoni, R. N. Okparanma

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217096

The present investigation discusses the characteristic of leachate generated from municipal solid waste landfill and it adverse impacts on downstream water quality. Landfill leachate was collected from a hole dug 10 m away from the waste dump site and the appearance of the leachate sample looks black. Three downstream water samples were collected at 10 meters intervals each from each other and less than 100 meters from the boundary of the dumpsite. All the samples were examined for temperature, pH, TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, nitrate, ammonia, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cl, total phosphate, sulfate, EC, DO and turbidity. The aim was to compare physicochemical and heavy metal properties of leachate and downstream water quality with internationally accepted protocols. The Laboratory analysis exhibited prevalence of high value of pH (8.5130.09), temperature(29.00.0), turbidity (14.00.41NTU), DO (0.1670.05 mg/l), COD (68.00.33 mg/l), BOD5 (324.03.00 mg/l), EC (446315.53s/cm), Total phosphate (62.3580.01 mg/l), Pb (0.310.00 mg/l), Cd (0.060.00 mg/l), Ni (0.3550.01 mg/l), and Cu (8.670.04 mg/l) in the leachate sample, which have exceeded their permissible limits. For downstream water samples, pH (7.760.07 to 7.5070.09), temperature (29.00.00) for the three sampling points, DO (3.6670.15 to 3.2330.12 mg/l), total phosphate (8.2250.00 to 7.9350.02 mg/l), Pb (0.4650.01 to 0.0910.00 mg/l), Cd (0.040.00 to 0.0230.00 mg/l), Ni and Cu (0.0430.06 mg/l) and (1.0620.00 mg/l) respectively, also exceeded their respective permissible limit recommended by Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, World Health Organization in drinking water quality. From this study, there is evidence that there is an increase in risk to surface water that is reported near Uyo village road municipal solid waste dumping site. Therefore, the concerned authority should take appropriate intervention measures to protect surface water. Also, knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and providing remedial measures to protect downstream water quality in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Small-Signal Analysis of Common-Gate Amplifier for RF Applications

Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 20-24
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217097

The paper presents a study of common-gate amplifier focused in small-signal analysis. Small-signal or frequency response of the amplifier determines the maximum frequency of operation and the effective bandwidth of the circuit. With the analysis, the circuit could be modeled and designed to achieve gain at the desired frequency of operation. Design tradeoffs are inevitable and are carefully considered in the analysis and design, for radio frequency (RF) applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental and Analytical Investigations of Innovative Composite Materials Using GFRP and Iron Slag for Railway Sleepers

Ali S. Shanour, Ahmed Abdelmoamen Khalil, Hany Sobhy Riad, Heba Mahmoud Bakry

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 25-42
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217098

This paper presents further results of experimental testing and analytical investigation on the mechanical properties of fiber composite sleeper in order to evaluate its strength and behavior. Recycled high density polyethylene, iron slag, calcium carbonate, styrene and polyester resin were used with different percentages for manufacturing the proposed composite sleepers. Adding glass fiber ropes and woven laminates as a reinforcement to enhance the flexural capacity of the proposed composite material. Negative bending at center and positive rail seat compression were performed on full scale sleeper. Two full scale sleepers were proof loaded up to 72, 82 KN under negative bending test without any generated cracks. Also, under positive rail seat compression test, first crack occurred at load ranged from 170, 195 KN and failure load happened at load 270, 250 KN. That's mean that the strength of sleeper ranged from 36.39 to 39.30 MPa. This result showed  that  the  proposed  composite  material  of  sleeper  has  sufficient  strength  to  hold mechanical connections. Nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) predicted the behavior up to failure load of the proposed composite sleeper reasonably well. This confirms that the behavior and failure modes of composite sleeper can be well predicted by simplified analysis procedures. Comparison of proposed composite with commercially available composite and timber sleepers' behavior was presented. It is found that proposed composite sleeper performance is near or similar to that of timber and better than that of commercially available composite sleepers. It is concluded that the proposed composite sleeper can be effectively used for timber sleeper replacement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Advanced Semiconductor Design through Specialized Printable Conductive Layer

Rennier Rodriguez, Frederick Ray Gomez, Maiden Grace Maming

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217099

Semiconductor package miniaturization and thinning have become of particular interest among semiconductor manufacturing industries, with each manufacturing company having specific approach and technical directions in providing unique solutions in their products. The paper provides a specialized design of manufacturing flow for semiconductor device through advanced fabrication method using stencil printing. The advanced process would significantly reduce the carrier thickness for the overall package height configuration of the device. The implementation of the specialized design and process would mitigate common assembly barriers and defects related in producing thin devices, hence, enabling cost-saving realization and manufacturing solution to package thinning and miniaturization with multiple input/output (I/O) requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Breast Cancer Prediction using Artificial Intelligence Methods

Shawni Dutta, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 48-54
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217105

In India, the death toll due to breast cancer is increasing at a rapid pace. Only early detection and diagnosis is the way of control but it is a major challenge in India due to lack of awareness and lethargy of Indian womentowards health care and regular check-up. But the major obstacle in India is expensive health care system and unavailability of proper infrastructure, especially in breast cancer treatment. This paper aims in obtaining an automated tool that will exploit patient’s health records and predict the tendency of being affected in breast cancer. Gradient Boost classifier is used as an automated tool that predicts the chance of being affected in breast cancer disease. Early detection of this disease will assist health care systems to provide counter measures in order to save patients’ life. The proposed model is evaluated against other peer classifiers such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN), Naïve bayes classifier, Adaboost classifier, Decision Tree (DT) classifier, and Random Forest (RF) Classifier. The proposed method achieves encouraging result with an accuracy of 97.34%, F1-Score of 0.97 Cohen-Kappa Score of 0.94 and MSE of 0.0266. The Gradient Boost algorithm attains the lowest error rate along with highest efficiency which might be the best choice of algorithm for this problem and prediction of disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Augmented and Virtual Reality Technologies in Developing Logistics Processes

Péter Veres, Ákos Cservenák, Róbert Skapinyecz, Béla Illés, Tamás Bányai, Umetaliev Akylbek, Péter Tamás

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 55-62
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v13i217107

Nowadays, manufacturing and service companies are increasingly using new IT-based methods and solutions. Two of these areas are the use of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Kyrgyz National Agrarian University named after K.I. Skrybian (KNAU) and Kyrgyz State Technical University Named After Iskhaak Razzakov (KSTU) established VR laboratories with the support of an European project, in which the Institute of Logistics of the University of Miskolc played a key role. In this publication, we present the basics of VR and AR technology, with the current market and research shares and lastly its application in laboratories and industrial environments.