Open Access Original Research Article

Process Enhancement to Eliminate Adhesive Film Remains during Die Picking

E. Graycochea Jr., B. C. Bacquian, F. R. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v11i317057

Adhesive film remains on the dicing tape is one of the problems encountered in diebonding or die attach process during the pick-up process of silicon dies. With this occurrence, one method used to identify the root cause is the process mapping from wafer preparation to diebonding. Adhesive film remains are found occurring during the process, affecting the manufacturability and assembly yield of the semiconductor package. By resorting to a new and improved die attach adhesive film material, occurrence of its remains was mitigated during the diebonding process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation and Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion: A Case Study of a Fixed Bed Incinerator

Arthur M. Omari, John P. John, Baraka Kichonge

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 5-19
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v11i317060

In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to develop a model for the simulation and flow conditions of the incinerator. The CFD technique are based on subdividing the volume of interest, i.e., the combustion chamber (or other parts of the plant) into a grid of elementary volumes. The relevant equations of conservation (mass, momentum, energy) are then applied to each of those elements, after defining all inputs, outputs and boundary conditions. The resulting system is then integrated from start to finish, after introducing momentum, mass and heat transfer. The objective of the study was to evaluate and optimize the performance of locally available incinerators in Tanzania. The small scale municipal solid waste incinerator modelling was done by using a fluent solver. The case study of the existing incinerator at a Bagamoyo hospital in Tanzania was used as a model and the obtained values were compared with simulated results and other publications for validation. The design optimization using CFD techniques to predict the performance of incinerator showed the deviation of input air by 14%, the mass flow rate by 26.5%, the mass fraction of carbon dioxide by 10.4% and slight deviation of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The study suggested removing the ash during the incineration process by using a moving grate mechanism to minimize the possibility of formation of NOX. The study found the maximum mass flow rate capacity of incinerator to be 68kg/h with input air A1 as 0.03639 kg/s, input air A2 as 0.03046 kg/s and input air A3 as 0.03409 kg/s. The findings indicated that as capacity is scaled up, the available momentum declines relative to the dimensions of the furnace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Polymer Additive on Nano Materials Modified Asphalt Mixtures

Ahmed E. Abu El-Maaty, Mohammed E. Ouf, Saddam Shahrah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v11i317061

Recently, by the increase of traffic volumes and tonnages, modern axle arrangements and more wheel compressions, the needs to the highway asphaltic pavements have increased, requiring an improvement in the performance of asphaltic materials. With a view to enhance the performance of asphalt mixture, the pure asphalt binder requires to be modified with appropriate modifiers. In recent years, pavement technologies and investigators have put their attentions on nanotechnology. In this research, Nano Clay particles (NC) as well as Nano Silica particles (NS) and one polymer additive (Styrene- Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) were utilized with asphalt binder. The addition ratios of nano materials were (1%, 2% and 3%) mixed with 5% SBS by weight of the asphalt binder. Marshall test and wheel tracking test were used to estimate the influence of nano particles and SBS on hot mix asphalt (HMA) performance. The results illustrated that nano materials and SBS improved the stability, flow and Marshall quotient that indicated to the rutting or plastic deformation resistance of modified asphaltic mixtures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigative Analysis of Marine Tugboat Accident in Nigeria. A Case Study of Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers State

Clement A. Idiapho, Sani I. Awwal

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 30-45
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v11i317062

The research paper showed that the major causes of boat and ferry accidents in Nigeria include human factor errors, natural factors, and technical factors. The safety of life and navigation at sea are important to coastal, flag states and the entire international shipping community in sustaining the growth of global sea trade. National governments and indeed the Federal government of Nigeria have committed substantial resources and efforts on programmes aimed at reducing the incidence of accident involving marine vessels at sea. The primary causes of boat and ferry accident considered in this paper include human, natural, and technical factors. Human factor constitutes the core causes of boat and ferry accidents in Nigeria inland waterways, as reflected in the calculated value of X2 = (0.368), a value within the acceptance region as it is less than the theoretical value of X2 = (7.815). The human factors include the following: overloading, over speeding, collision, night sailing without adequate light, grounding, overcrowding etc. Natural factors investigated are: sea condition (current), tides and tidal stream, severe wind, reduced visibility, stormy seas, darkness, rainstorms and waves. Technical factors include shortcomings within the ship, such as, steering failure, engine failure, corrosion or hull failure arising from defective materials or construction. These findings have implication on regulation and enforcement by relevant authorities. In view of the findings and conclusion drawn in this study, it was suggested that Government should support these agencies such as NIWA, Marine Police, NIMASA, and the Nigeria Navy if possible with equipment’s, logistics in policing the waterway

Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Recognition Methods Based on Wavelet Transform for Melanoma Detection

Maen Almarei, Khaled Daqrouq

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 46-61
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v11i317063

Skin cancer is one of the most cancers occurring in the world. Malignant melanoma is the most skin cancer type causing death around the world. Melanoma could be treated 100% if they are detected at earlier stages. In this paper, various melanoma detection systems were reviewed according to the year of publishing. All reviewed papers were based on feature extraction methods using wavelet transform (WT) in its two versions: Discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and wavelet packet transform (WPT) for melanoma recognition. Our methodology that was based on the WPT feature extraction and probabilistic neural network (PNN) was used for comparison. The ISIC database was used for differentiating between malignant (1110 images) and benign (1110 image) tumors. A (75% training /25% testing) verification system was applied. Many experiments were conducted using different parameters for each experiment. The support vector machine classifier (SVM) was the most common classifier combined with various types of wavelet features that have appeared in many kinds of literature during the last two decades, which achieved relatively the best accuracy ranged between [76% - 98.29%]. In this paper, our combination method of the WPT and entropy was proposed and evaluated. Several experiments were conducted for testing. A comparison manner was used for discussion of the investigation. The proposed method was an excellent detection method for melanoma regarding the complexity, where no preprocessing stage was conducted.