Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Tomato Water Productivity Using Aquacrop Model in Njoro Sub County, Nakuru, Kenya

Hellen J. Sang, Raphael M. Wambua, James M. Raude

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v10i317038

Aims: To model tomato water productivity under deficit sub – surface drip irrigation and grass mulch densities using Aquacrop model.

Study Design: The study was factorial experimental with twelve treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: Tatton Agriculture Park, Egerton University, Nakuru, Kenya between January to May 2019.

Methodology: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) crop (Tylka F1) was used to determine the effect of deficit irrigation and mulching on its productivity. Aquacrop model was calibrated to simulate the tomato yield, biomass and water productivity. Aquacrop model was used to estimate the tomato water requirements, water productivity, yield and biomass under deficit irrigation and mulching. The study was carried out on 36 experimental plots measuring 2 by 2 m with the total area under study being 144 m2.

Results: The results showed a good correlation between the actual and simulated water productivity as determined by the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.00, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (%) of 0.04 and Coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.72.

Conclusion: The study calibrated Aquacrop model for simulating tomato crop water productivity in Njoro Sub County and showed that the model is a good estimator of tomato water productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wafer Preparation Parameter Optimization for Wafer Defects Elimination

B. C. Bacquian, F. R. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v10i317040

In every new technology developed and introduced to the manufacturing floor, particularly in the wafer preparation, entails problems that later induce defects affecting the wafer yield. This paper discusses the optimization of wafer preparation parameters, particularly the tensionless backgrinding tape lamination and DAF cut vacuum control, that mitigates wafer yield detractors such as edge cut, kerf shift and dice pop-out. Based on the evaluation results, tensionless backgrinding lamination affects the kerf shifting and edge cutting, and with proper vacuum control to attain zero dice pop-out process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geotechnical Characterization of the Subgrade on Some Rural Roads in Cross River State, Nigeria and the Influence of Geology

Abidemi Olujide Ilori, Anusa Andrew Anusa

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 27-39
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v10i317041

The subgrades of three different rural roads alignment were investigated with the aim to determine their geotechnical properties. The three roads are on two different geologic terrains. Two of the roads, the 18 km Yahe-Waniye-Wanakom road and the 6 km Okpoma-Okuku road are on Cretaceous sediments terrain, while the 8 km Ugboro-Imaje-Okuku road is on the Basement Complex terrain. Based on American Association of Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) most of the soils classify as A-2-4, A-2-6 on the first two roads with A-7-5, A-7-6 soils interspersed between the A-2-4 soils. The A-2-4, A-2-6 soils were also encountered on the only alignment on the basement complex, but the A-7 group of soils were not encountered on this alignment. Based on The Transport Research Laboratory Road Note 31, subgrade quality on all the three alignments is classed into ‘S4 to S6’ subgrade class. In this classification scheme ‘S6’ is the subgrade of the highest quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Thermally Controlled Poultry Housing Using CFD

T. O. Tehinse, F. R. Falayi, T. O. Aduewa, M. O. Alatise, B. I. Osho

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v10i317042

Poultry industry’s development in the past two decades and the need for increased animal protein sources in the hot regions of the world, require the need to develop housing system that is thermally controlled for optimal production. The research was carried out at Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The facility consisted of a broiler house of 6 rooms enclosed by masonry sidewalls at the base and insulated plywood at the upper section of the house with each experimental room equipped with blower, suction fan and heater. The data were monitored at the most critical time of the day – 1 pm during the dry season. Experimental data were recorded using developed and calibrated data logger. The 5 experimental rooms are programed to 5 temperature levels (41, 38, 35, 32 and 29°C) characterizing extreme heat boundary conditions for broilers with fans programmed at 1.5 m/s air velocity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal distribution in solid-wall broiler houses using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD technique allows visualizing air flow according to different running condition for each room for exhaust fans, as well as other parameters. The simulation was used to determine the air temperature variation, inner wall temperature, external temperature, air velocity distribution, external wall heat flux, pressure and wall heat transfer coefficient in all the experimental rooms of poultry house. The simulated air flow pattern and temperature distribution in the experimental rooms were analyzed and the result revealed increase room temperature as the preset room temperature increases. However, the velocity profile in all the room shows buildup of air at the outlet vent due to turbulence created by the suction fans. The pressure profile across the rooms was relatively the same.

Open Access Review Article

Draft Requirement of Two Animal - Drawn Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) Weeders

Y. A. Unguwanrimi, A. M. Sada, G. N. Ugama, H. S. Garuba, A. Ugoani

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2020/v10i317039

Draft requirements of two animal – drawn (IAR) weeders operating on loam soil were determined in the study. The implements include a straddle row weeder and an emcot attached rotary weeder evaluated under the same soil conditions, using a pair of white Fulani breed of oxen. The animal draft requirement was first estimated from the animal ergonomics measurements. Using area of 0.054 hectare as experimental plot for each implement the draft requirement of each implement was investigated after taking soil samples for soil moisture content and bulk density determinations. The implements tested showed variation in their average draft requirement. The straddle row weeder had the highest value of 338.15 N respectively while the emcot attached rotary weeder had the lowest value of 188.12 N with 47.03%, respectively. The average soil moisture contents and bulk density were 13.0% and 1.46%/cm3, respectively.