Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation of Black Carbon Emissions from Gas Flaring Activities in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

C. E. Ezeokoro, Y. Momoh, T. Leton

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i217011

There is no Black Carbon emission inventory for Nigeria and no standard Emission factor with which to measure the volume of emissions. This study aims at providing baseline emission inventory for the volume of Black Carbon released into the environment from gas flaring activities in the National Data Repository (NDR) between 1965 to 2016 (52 years) using Nigeria's associated petroleum gas-related emission factors; modelling of the estimated Black Carbon emissions using logistic growth model. The volume of gas produced and flared within this period was sourced from Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) annual bulletins and other literature. The work shows that: for the period under review, 1.8 trillion cubic meters of gas was produced and 0.91 trillion cubic meters was flared, only 11% of gas produced was flared in 2016. Estimated cumulative Black Carbon emission shows that Black Carbon emission from gas flare is decreasing as the volume of gas flared is decreasing. The model shows that 487050 tons, 1116157 tons; 19438 tons, 44544 tons and 0.10 are the respective carrying capacities, initial Black Carbon volumes and growth rate for the upper and lower Black Carbon emissions.  Re-injection and Utilization of flared gas for cooking purposes and placing a heavy penalty on gas flaring activities are among solutions given to reduce gas flaring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Punching Strengthening of Concrete Slab-column Connections Using Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Bars

Ahmed H. Abdel-Kareem

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i217013

This paper investigates experimentally the effect of near surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber reinforcement polymer (CFRP) bars as externally strengthening on the punching shear behavior of interior slab-column connections. Many researchers used NSM as a novel strengthening technique in various structural elements. However, the strengthening of slab-column connections using NSN is relatively new. Seven Reinforced concrete (RC) square slabs with a concentric column were tested over simply supported four sides. One control specimen was tested without strengthening, four specimens were strengthened using NSM-CFRP bar installed in pre-cut groove surrounded the column at the tension side of the slab, and two specimens were strengthened using externally bonded (EB) CFRP strips which have the same tensile force of the CFRP bars. The arrangement and the location of the strengthened materials were also test variables. The test results showed that using NSM strengthening technique significantly increased the punching shear capacity and ultimate stiffness compared to using EB strengthening technique. Where the increasing in the punching capacity and ultimate stiffness were 18% and 13-18%, respectively. Moreover, the NSM-CFRP bars greatly reduced the cracks in the punching shear zone around the columns. The measured ultimate punching shear capacity for the tested specimens showed very reasonable agreement with the calculated punching loads based on an analytical model for slab-column connections strengthened using FRP that account for its arrangement and location.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Incorporating Package Grinding Process for QFN Thin Device Manufacturing

Rennier S. Rodriguez, Frederick Ray I. Gomez

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i217014

Package thinning, down-scaling, and miniaturization are common interests among semiconductor industries, with each manufacturing site having different approach and technical directions in providing novelties in their products. The paper offers an innovative design of manufacturing flow to reduce the semiconductor package height of a Quad-Flat No-leads (QFN) device through the application of a specialized package grinding process.  The process would significantly reduce the carrier thickness for the overall package height configuration of QFN. Through this integration, the common assembly barriers and defects related in producing thin devices are eliminated, thus thinner version manufacturing becomes more simplified and efficient.

Open Access Review Article

Investigation of P2O5% and Fe2O3% Geostatistically within Abu Tartour Phosphate Deposit, Western Desert, Egypt

H. A. Farag, M. A. Gouda, M. A. Yassin

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i217010

Geostatistical techniques play an important role to study the mineralization behavior within the ore deposits. When preparing the phosphate deposits for marketing, we try to minimize the iron content due to the harmful effect of this element on the physical and mechanical properties of superphosphate and phosphoric acid. One of the biggest problems in Abu Tartour phosphate deposits, Western Desert, Egypt is the high iron content within apatite grains. The received data are analyzed statistically to show the distribution of P2O5% and Fe2O3% at Abu Tartour area. Also, experimental variograms have been constructed for P2O5% and Fe2O3% of phosphate deposits through the studied area to reflect different variogram models. After fitting the variogram to suitable variogram model, kriged models are established for each variable.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Date Palm Irrigation Methods and Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Elfeky, Jamal Elfaki

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i217012

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), from Saudi Arabia, is a main tree particularly at arid areas. It plays an essential role in both food and food security. 75% of date production worldwide (approx. 5,096.99 tones) were come from Arab countries. Reduction of water opposite the increasing in the population are one of the future challenges for the country so, we focused in this study depending on the literatures to predict the novel approaches that can we used.