Open Access Case study

The Working Principle of a Turbine “Case Study: GE Frame 9E Gas Turbine”

Obolo Olupitan Emmanuel

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i117005

Gas Turbine is one of the machines that use the thermodynamic principle converting fuel energy to mechanical energy. It is an internal combustion engine. Also, designed to accelerate a stream of gas, which is used to produce a reactive thrust to propel an object or to produce mechanical power that turns a load. It functions in the same way as the internal combustion engine. It sucks in air from the atmosphere, and compress it. The fuel (gas) is injected and ignited (spark plug). The gases expand doing work and finally exhausts outside. Instead of reciprocating motion, the gas turbine uses a rotary motion throughout, and that is the only difference.

Open Access Original Research Article

How Effectively Value Engineering Practices are Being Implemented in Qatar on Infrastructure Projects

Zeeshan Irshad

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i117006

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of Value Engineering (VE) practices being used in Qatar mainly on infrastructure projects. This study will further explore the deficiencies in adopted overall VE processes and subsequently recommend the solutions to overcome current problems or difficulties.

To conduct this study a mixed method approach was adopted, which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative date. Survey questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative date and it was sent to 72 professionals belongs to different construction groups currently involved on infrastructure projects in Qatar. Semi structured interviews were conducted to collect the qualitative date. Interviews were conducted with 06 professionals working as value engineer on different infrastructure projects in Qatar to obtain further practical information about VE processes in Qatar and know about the real difficulties they encountered.

This research reveals that the value engineering processes being used in Qatar are in line with international standards set by the SAVE International. This study further reveals that only 5 percent to 7 percent cost savings are being achieved on infrastructure projects in Qatar. This is in addition to the improvements in HSE, quality and time of project. 

However, where this study has shown cost benefits from VE implementation, it also highlighted that significant improvement is required to extend the cost benefits from 7 percent to maximum 12 percent for which VE is known without compromising on functionality and quality requirements. This is a clear indication that current practices need to be improved. The identified improvements include starting VE process at the end of preliminary design stage, more involvement of clients and by considering whole life cycle costs of the projects by introduction of sustainable, environment friendly and innovative alternatives design solutions and construction materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Engineered Sewage Treatment System in Selected Niger Delta Environment

Edward Moore, Godwin Udom, Nnaemeka Ngobiri, Leo Osuji

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i117007

Water is life. Unfortunately, there has become a great scarcity of this precious liquid due to anthropogenic/human activities which have generated wastes, especially sewage that has not been adequately treated in the country, more especially in the poverty-stricken Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The few freshwater bodies not only serve a means for domestic use, including drinking, but it is also used as a means of direct sewage disposal both by the locals and other related unabated activities, thereby increasing the prevalence of water-borne diseases. 

A locally designed sewage plant “engineered sewage treatment system” (ESTS) was therefore designed and developed with local materials like palm kernel shell (PKS), periwinkle shell (PWS), charcoal, fine, and coarse sand to treat domestic wastewater and improve the quality of the available water source within the local communities. The ESTS was operated for three months, and weekly monitoring carried out. The analysis of the treated effluents showed a significant reduction in the levels of contaminants as most of the physicochemical and biological parameters were within acceptable limits by the World Health Organization/Federal Ministry of Environment (WHO/FMEnv). The quality of treated sewage water improved when subjected to treatment by ESTS and compared well to the borehole water, which served as control. The results of the treatment process showed a 93% to 100% treatment efficiency of ESTS in the removal of F. coliform, E. coli, Streptococcus and Clostridium from the sewage. This high-efficiency rate has provided a holistic and affordable (cost-effective) means to curb the proliferation of water- borne diseases and help improve water quality in riverine communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Practices and Challenges in Construction Industry in Qatar

Ayman Mohammed, Syed Ali Hasnain, Abdul Quadir

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i117008

The present research is aimed to identify the barriers in implementation of building information modelling (BIM) practices and challenges in construction industry in Qatar. Construction industry has been one of the lowest performing industries around the world. Recent growth in infrastructure projects in the past three decades has led to criticism of many problems. In view of improving the image of the industry, most commonly criticized issues are lack of innovation, industry wide fragmentation and low performance in delivery of projects. A collaborative working environment is required to solve these issues. In the past few years, development and use of information technology in AEC industry has increased to support the requirement of an integrated working environment. With revolution in use of technology, BIM seems to offer solution to most problems faced by the industry. BIM presents computer aided process to manage entire construction project from design phase to disposal of the built structure. Construction boards and private market forces in US and UK have reported low awareness and implementation about BIM. Recent improvements have not achieved the required level of deployment. Construction industry in Qatar faces similar issues in dealing with upsurge of infrastructure projects. Construction sector in Europe, US, UK and Singapore after witnessing the advantages of BIM started pushing for higher implementation. Expected use of BIM in Qatar will be less than European, US and UK markets at government level. As BIM offers solution to the issues faced by construction industry in Qatar, it will be beneficial to examine current status of implementation, barriers and challenges faced by the construction sector in its implementation in Qatar.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Low Cost Post Harvest Storage Techniques to Extend the Shelf Life of Citrus Fruits and Vegetables

Fahmida Ishaque, Md. Altaf Hossain, Md. Abdur Rashid Sarker, Md. Yunus Mia, Atik Shahriar Dhrubo, Gazi Tamiz Uddin, Md. Hafizur Rahman

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v9i117009

An attempt was made to develop low cost porous evaporative cooling storage structures for extending the shelf life of citrus fruits and vegetables at the Sylhet Agricultural University campus, Bangladesh. Clay soil, bamboo and straw were used as a wall material. Sand, clay, zeolite, rice husk and charcoal etc. were used as a pad material. But the mixture of sand and clay was found as the most efficient pad materials for lowering temperature. Porous evaporative cooling storage structure (PECSS) was developed to reduce the problems of post-harvest losses at farmer level. It is eco-friendly and no energy requirements for storage of vegetables and fruits. PECSS improves the quality and productivity of vegetables and citrus fruits by reducing temperature, prolonging shelf life and reducing post-harvest losses respectively. The study revealed that shelf life of egg-plant (Solanum melongena) was 11 days in PECSS condition and it was 6 days in ambient condition. Therefore, weight loss was 4.07% for PECSS and 11.84% in room condition respectively. Storage life of Ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) was 6 days more in PECSS condition than room condition. Weight loss was 6.62% in PECSS condition and 17.47% loss in ambient condition. In case of Malabar Spinach (Basella alba) it was 6 days for PECSS condition and 3 days for room condition and weight loss was found to be 9.48% and 16.17% respectively. The shelf life of stem amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) was 5 days in PECSS condition and 2 days in ambient condition. Weight loss was found 7.05% at PECSS condition and 28.62% as in-room condition. By chemical analysis for fruits lemon (Citrus limon) and orange (Citrus sinensis) found that pH and TSS were increased both ambient and PECSS condition but in PECSS condition this rate was less than ambient condition. Vitamin C, percentage juice content, citric acid values all were decrease at both condition but in PECSS condition its rate was the less ambient condition. There is scope for intensive study to improve the firmness of the porous evaporative cooling storage structure (PECSS) to reduce the storage loss of vegetables and citrus fruits for different region and its suitability for large scale design.