Open Access Original Research Article

Local Geology, Shear Strength Properties and Bearing Capacity of Coastal Plain Sands in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa-Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria

Abidemi Olujide Ilori, Charles Etim Akpan Uko, Ini Christopher Umoh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i416996

The Bearing capacity of the soil within Uyo metropolis in South-Eastern State of Akwa Ibom was investigated in this study. The soil belongs to Coastal Plain Sand often called the Benin Formation in the geology of Niger Delta. Both Field and Laboratory methods were employed in the study. The field method consisted of Cone Penetration Test (CPT) with a 2.5 ton Dutch Guada cone penetrometer, and the Light weight penetrometer LRS 10. For the CPT, depth of investigation was refusal depth which varies from about 9.0 m to 20.0 m. The depth of investigation by the LRS 10 was not more than 6.0 m. The direct parameter the LRS 10 evaluates is the relative density. Soil sounding with the LRS 10 indicated for all the sites a ‘loose to medium’ consistency. No dense or very dense stratum was encountered. The Laboratory method employed was the Direct shear box tests This was used to determine the cohesive property and angle of shearing resistance of the soil, that is the C- ∅ property. The cohesion varies very widely; with a value ranging from a zero value to 54 kN/m2. The angle of shearing resistance ranges from 8º to 30.7º, with more than ninety percent falling below 28º, indicating a highly compressible soil that is prone to local shear failure. Ultimate bearing capacities are as low as 100.93 kN/m2 and as high as 571.1 kN/m2. Settlement associated with safe bearing pressure estimated from CPT data ranged from 0.35 cm to 3.89 cm. while that from laboratory gives lesser values, thereby making that from the field value conservative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybrid Pattern Recognition and Multi-resolution Analysis (MRA) Based Fault Location in Power Transmission Lines

Jude I. Aneke, O. A. Ezechukwu, P. I. Tagboh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i416998

This paper proposes a fault (line-to-line) location on Ikeja West – Benin 330kV electric power transmission lines using wavelet multi-resolution analysis and neural networks pattern recognition abilities. Three-phase line-to-line current and voltage waveforms measured during the occurrence of a fault in the power transmission-line were pre-processed first and then decomposed using wavelet multi-resolution analysis to obtain the high-frequency details and low-frequency approximations. The patterns formed based on high-frequency signal components were arranged as inputs of the neural network, whose task is to indicate the occurrence of a fault on the lines. The patterns formed using low-frequency approximations were arranged as inputs of the second neural network, whose task is to indicate the exact fault type. The new method uses both low and high-frequency information of the fault signal to achieve an exact location of the fault. The neural network was trained to recognize patterns, classify data and forecast future events. Feed forward networks have been employed along with back propagation algorithm for each of the three phases in the Fault location process. An analysis of the learning and generalization characteristics of elements in power system was carried using Neural Network toolbox in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Simulation results obtained demonstrate that neural network pattern recognition and wavelet multi-resolution analysis approach are efficient in identifying and locating faults on transmission lines as the average percentage error in fault location was just 0.1386%. This showed that satisfactory performance was achieved especially when compared to the conventional methods such as impedance and travelling wave methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of a Drip Irrigation System in Southeastern Nigeria

C. P. Nwachukwu, L. C. Orakwe, N. M. Okoye

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i417001

Extreme climatic factors (temperature, precipitation etc) which at times lead to drought and flooding affect crop yield negatively. In this study, a PVC drip irrigation was developed and the irrigation parameters were evaluated in a farmland with three tillage methods (conventional tillage, conservative tillage and no tillage). The irrigation treatments comprised of three levels of irrigation (50% Management allowable depletion, 30% management allowable depletion and 10% management allowable depletion). Different irrigation parameters were evaluated for different crop growth stages, different soil treatments and different soil depths (0-25 cm, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm depths).

The field capacity was determined at -0.01MPa, from the result, the field capacity was minimum at no tillage (0.07 cm3/cm3, 0.11 cm3/cm3, 0.12 cm3/cm3, and 0.14 cm3/cm3) for soil depths 0-25 cm, 25-50 cm, 50-75 cm and 75-100 cm respectively, for conservative tillage (0.11 cm3/cm3, 0.11 cm3/cm3, 0.11 cm3/cm3, 0.14 cm3/cm3) for 0-25 cm, 25-50 cm, 50-75 cm and 75-100 cm soil depths respectively and conventional tillage (0.09 cm3/cm3, 0.13 cm3/cm3, 0.15 cm3/cm3, 0.17 cm3/cm3) for 0-25 cm, 25-50 cm, 50-75 cm and 75-100 cm soil depths respectively.

The permanent wilting point was determined at -1.5MPa, from the result, permanent wilting point increased with increase in soil depth in conventional tillage and no tillage with PWP of 0.01 cm3/cm3, 0.05 cm3/cm3, 0.09 cm3/cm3 and 0.11 cm3/cm3 at 0-25 cm, 25-50 cm, 50-75 cm and 75-100 cm soil depths respectively for conventional tillage and PWP of 0.02 cm3/cm3, 0.05 cm3cm3, 0.05 cm3/cm3 and 0.08 cm3/cm3 at 0-25 cm, 25-50 cm, 50-75 cm and 75-100 cm soil depths respectively for no tillage.

The average net irrigation was found to be 1.2 cm, 1.56 cm and 1.95 cm for conventional tillage, conservative tillage and no tillage respectively, while the average gross irrigation was found to be 1.7 cm, 1.7 cm and 2.1 cm for conventional tillage, conservative tillage and no tillage respectively.

Statistical analysis of net and gross irrigation gave a coefficient of determination of 0.99 and p-value at 0.05 was significant with a value of 0.00007.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrogen Production through a Solar Powered Electrolysis System

Deborah A. Udousoro, Cliff Dansoh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i417002

Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources is gaining recognition as one of the best energy solutions without ecological drawbacks. The present study reports hydrogen production through a solar powered electrolysis system as a means to curtail greenhouse gas emissions in the United Kingdom. The solar powered electrolysis unit is modeled to provide 58400 kg of hydrogen to run the fuel cell bus fleet in Lea interchange garage in London on a yearly basis. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of the photovoltaic module and the proton exchange membrane electrolyzer. An energy balance of the electrolysis unit was calculated to give 47.82 kWh/kg and used to model a 2.98 MW photovoltaic system required to run the electrolysis process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Chemically Modified Cashew Nut Shell Liquid

H. N. Dike, A. Dosunmu, B. Kinigoma, O. Akaranta

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i417004

The need to convert waste-to-wealth motivated this research. Huge amount of by-products generated in the processing stage of cashew nut is treated as waste and dumped in the environment. The waste contains a dark liquid rich in natural and renewable phenolic material known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Owing to the phenolic composition and structural features of CNSL, different types of naturally occurring as well as modified natural cellulose based polymers have been synthesized and used to substitute synthetic and petroleum based polymers for various applications. In this study, naturally occurring liquid from cashew nut shell was extracted, modified and characterized as additive for drilling fluid formulations. The study adopted solvent extraction technique using soxhlet apparatus, acetone and cashew nut shell. The liquid extract was further modified using amines respectively. In the condensation reaction, 100 mls of the cashew nut shell was used to react with 7.3 ml ethanol-amines, 27.58 ml diethanol-amine (DEA) and 38.2 ml triethanol-amine (TEA) respectively. The mixtures were sulphonated with sulphamic acid as catalyst at a temperature ranging from 100ºC to 140ºC. The reaction mixtures were stirred continually for an hour (1hr.) and water of esterification was collected as by-product of the reaction which was an indication of complete reaction. Biodegradable, cheap and renewable esters were obtained. To elucidate on the chemical structure, the esters were subjected to elemental analysis using the FTIR instrument. The results of the FTIR analysis revealed that N-H and C-H stretching vibrations which were absent in CNSL, were present in the modified compounds, attesting that in deed new compounds have been formed. The physico-chemical properties of the extract was analysand the result showed an agreement with existing literature. These products, in combination with the right additives, and conditions could be potential multi-purpose additives in drilling operation. This will help to reduce the cost of importing synthetic oilfield additives, creating job opportunities and boosting the local content goal.