Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges Facing Graduate Structural Engineers in the Building Construction Industry in Kenya

Bett Barnabas, Simiyu John, Dimo Herbert

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i316991

Despite a number of challenges, training institution Kenya has produced structural engineers in the building and construction field. As a result, there have been problems facing these apprentices that have led to questions concerning their competencies in the Kenyan building and construction industry. Mitigating such foreseeable problems, require proper policy planning, which can only be enacted after findings of facts have been adduced. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the challenges facing university trained structural engineers in the construction industry in Kenya. The research design in the study was cross-sectional survey research design. Purposive sampling was employed in collecting the data. The study population comprised practicing structural engineers trained at the universities offering building construction, civil engineering and structural engineering. Questionnaires were used to collected data from the sampled respondents in the building industry. Proportional analysis techniques and statistical chi-square test was used to analyze the data. Information on problems facing the engineers and perception of the engineering graduates concerning university training were collected from 89 Kenyan university trained practicing Structural engineers. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 23.0) presented inform of descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, frequency distribution, cross-tabulation and Chi-square (c2) tests. The results obtained revealed that, graduates had problems related to initial choice of the course, for which they did not have interest in and hence poor content coverage. These results demonstrate the need for establishment of a clear policy aimed at regulating the learning resources for structural engineers at the universities appropriately. Moreover, there is need for standard resources for the teaching of the programme and the need for higher educational funding scheme for research in the universities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Watershed Sustainability Index of University of Uyo Watershed Using UNESCO-IHP Help Tool

I. I. Ahuchaogu, T. A. Ewemoje, P. S. Isaiah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i316992

The study employed the UNESCO-IHP (International Hydrology Programme) HELP (Hydrology Environment Life and Policy) tool for watershed sustainability index (WSI) to evaluate the sustainability of the study area, University of Uyo main Campus watershed, comprising of three communities namely: Use Offot, Nsukara Offot and Ekpri Nsukara. The populace living here is perpetually confronted with the challenge of having adequate water to meet their needs despite abundant rainfall. This is due to lack of appropriate extraction mechanism and government will to means of making water available and accessible to the poeple. This study was to determine how sustainable the zone is regarding availability of water resource using WSI, which information is lacking. Field investigations and questionnaire tools were adopted to extract quantitative data for evaluating the adopted WSI template between years 2013 - 2018. Result obtained for Use Offot, shows the pressure state scored 0.75 each with hydrology quality scoring zero and Environment scoring 0.50. These, when averaged gave the HELP indicator score of 0.55. The State and Response parameters maximum and minimum values recorded were 0.75 (for Policy and Environment) and 1.0 for Hydrology quantity showing that these indicators are high within this region. The Community recorded a total average score of 0.59 of all the evaluated parameters, showing that the watershed was fairly sustainable. Nsukara Offot, recorded 0.60 on the final score, an indication that the watershed was sustainable since the value was above 0.50. However, Ekpri Nsukara recorded the highest sustainability value of 0.62 on the average after analysing all the indicators measured. This is because of the high values of the Hydrology (quantity and quality), Environment, and Life and Policy indicators when estimated. Summarily, the WSI of the studied area was of the order averagely: Use Offot = 0.59, Nsukara Offot = 0.60 and Ekpri Nsukara = 0.62 with an average total parameter score of 0.60 affirming that the watershed is sustainable. 

Open Access Original Research Article

On-station Evaluation of Family Drip Irrigation System in North-West Ethiopia

Kasa Mekonen Tiku, Shushay Hagoes, Berhane Yohanes

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i316993

The study was carried out at the effect of drip and surface irrigation (Furrow irrigation) methods on onion and sesame crops from December 2011 to May 2012 in the Tigray region of Northwest Ethiopia. The objective was to evaluate the family drip irrigation system in comparison with furrow irrigation system in terms of irrigation water productivity (using 100% ETc for both commodities). The water saved in drip irrigation over furrow irrigation was found to be 33% for onion and sesame crops. The irrigation water productivity of onion was 0.9 kg/m3 and 0.55 kg/m3 under drip and furrow irrigation methods respectively. The irrigation water productivity of sesame was 0.14 kg/m3 and 0.045 kg/m3 under drip and furrow irrigation methods respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Standard Floor Assemble Simulation Approach for Abaqus Building Structures

Dongyue Wu, Wei Chen

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i316994

The mechanical analysis of integral building structure needs the proper ABAQUS finite element analysis, but due to the ABAQUS software function limits the building structure modelling is a great workload and how to model integral structure more quickly and efficiently become a difficult problem. To reduce the workloads in ABAQUS analysis of integral structure models, the new ABAQUS standard floor assemble modelling approach and the program computational algorithm were proposed based on ABAQUS model data structure, nodes geometry transformation and horizontal surface coordinate value distinguish rule. Afterward one example engineering structure model using this standard floor assemble approach and the linear perturbation analysis were completed. The lateral displacement distribution from analysis indicated that each floor lateral displacements distributed continuously without any significant mutation and the standard floor assemble model can successfully achieve the continuous connection of the upper and the lower floors. By comparing the results of ABAQUS standard floor assemble model with that from PKPM SATWE analysis, it is proved that the ABAQUS standard floor assemble modelling is more accurate and can be applied in structure analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Irrigation Practice of Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation System at Hiwot Agricultural Mechanization, Ethiopia

Kasa Mekonen Tiku, Pratap Singh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i316995

Irrigation practice evaluation of center pivot sprinkler irrigation system at Hiwot Agricultural Mechanization farm, North/west Ethiopia was conducted. The aim of the study was evaluating the existing center pivot irrigation practice in terms of irrigation scheduling. Measuring flow rate of center pivot machines for existing irrigation practice and Crop water requirement based scheduling was used to evaluate the system. The highest value of crop water requirement at location m6, m7 and m12 was 5.24 mm/day in September at mid-stage and for location m4 and m8 in October at mid-stage equal to 4.99 mm/day. Whereas, the lowest crop water requirement at location m6, m7 and m12 was 2.52 mm/day in July at the initial stage which was and for location m4 and m8 in august at initial stage equal to 2.08 mm/day. The actual flow rate of center pivot machines varies from 0.7l/s for m7 to a maximum of 1l/s for m4 whereas estimated crop water requirement flow rate varies from 0.6l/s for m6 to a maximum of 0.8l/s for m4. The study also revealed that the actual flow rate of the nozzles was excess. Therefore improvement of center pivot sprinkler irrigation system can be amended by using proper irrigation scheduling and by introducing an automatic control system.