Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies and Optimization of the Process Factors for the Extraction of Beta-carotene from Palm Oil and Soybean Oil by Solvent Extraction

Samuel O. Egbuna, Donatus C. Onwubiko, Christian O. Asadu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i216984

This research focuses on the extraction of beta-carotene from palm and soybean oils using solvents (Ethanol and Acetone), taking into account the effect of the extraction process factors such as time, temperature, dosage of the oil samples, solvent volume and solvent type. The extraction of beta-carotene from palm and soybean oils using acetone and ethanol was positively influenced by increase in temperature, time, solvent volume, dosage of the oil samples and solvent type. The effect of temperatures was carried out within the temperature ranges of 35ºC, 40ºC, 45ºC and 50ºC. It was observed that increase in temperature resulted in increase in concentration and 45ºC gave the highest concentration. From the study, it was observed that the extraction process for beta-carotene almost reached equilibrium after 50 mins for palm oil and 45 mins for soybean oil. Between acetone and ethanol used, ethanol was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of beta-carotene from palm oil and soybean oil. From the results, the concentration of the extracted beta-carotene increased as the volume of the solvent increased using both acetone and ethanol on both substrates. The concentration of extracted beta-carotene increased with increase in the dosage of the oil samples (palm and soybean). The increase in concentration could be attributed to the more active sites due to increase in the substrate volume.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Some Thermo-physical Properties of Fluid on Heat and Mass Transfer Flow Past Semi-infinite Moving Vertical Plate with Viscous Dissipation

M. O. Durojaye, K. A. Jamiu, I. O. Ajala

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i216985

This paper examines the effect of some thermo-physical properties of fluid on heat and mass transfer flow past semi-infinite moving vertical plate. The fluid considered is optically thin such that the thermal radiative heat loss on the fluid is modeled using Rosseland approximation.The governing partial differential equations in dimensionless forms are solved numerically using the Method of Lines (MOL). The velocity, the temperature, and the concentration profiles of the flow are discussed numerically and presented. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number at the plate are discussed numerically for various values of thermo-physical parameters and they are presented by the tables.The result shows that an increase in thermal radiation causes increase in velocity and temperature profiles of the flow, thus, the thermal radiation intensifies the convective flow. Also, an increase in Soret number causes increase in velocity and concentration profiles of the flow while the effect is negligible on temperature profile distribution. Similarly, an increase in Dufour number causes increase in velocity and temperature profiles of the flow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Study of Heat Transfer from Elliptic Tube in a Fluidized Bed

M. A. Abd-Rabbo, R. Y. Sakr, M. A. Mohammad, M. M. Mandour

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i216988

In the present work, heat transfer characteristics and flow field from a heated elliptic cylinder immersed in fluidized bed is studied numerically using CFD package. The flow pattern and heat transfer fields around the heated cylinder is predicted using a two fluid Eulerian-Eulerian model coupled with kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) with heat transfer. Experiments were carried out under uniform heat flux condition, with air as a fluidizing gas and pulverized coal as a bed material. The Reynolds number based on the equivalent hydraulic diameter, Dh, was ranged from 941to 1263. The simulation results of the present study showed that, for the range of gas velocity considered, at minimum fluidization velocity, Re = 914, the Nuθ is maximum at the sides of the cylinder and minimum at the stagnation, θ=0o, and top, θ=180o, of the cylinder. The average Nusselt number for the elliptic cylinder increases with the increase of the fluidization velocity. The present data is compared with a previous well-known correlation from the literature for a circular cylinder and a reasonable deviation about 11-30% is found. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanical Behaviour of Common Bean (cv. Butter) Seeds as Affected by Maturation

H. Uguru, O. I. Akpokodje, S. V. Irtwange

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i216989

In this study, the effects of maturation of bean seeds on some mechanical behaviours of common bean (cv. Butter) were investigated. The bean seeds were harvested at three maturity stages (15 DAPA, 22 DAPA and 29 DAPA), and their rupture force, rupture energy, specific deformation, toughness and rupture power were test. The bean seeds were quasi-statically loaded in along their three main axes (X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis), at a loading speed of 25 mm/min. The results obtained revealed that the maturity stage and loading orientation had significant (p ≤0.05) effect on all the mechanical parameters investigated in this study. According to the results, all the parameters investigated increased linearly as the bean seeds matured from 15 DAPA to 29 DAPA. For all the mechanical parameters, the highest values were obtained when the seeds were compressed along the Z-axis, while the least values were obtained when the seeds were compressed along the Y-axis. The highest rupture energy (0.064 Nm) was obtained for bean seeds (harvested at 29 DAPA) loaded along the Z-axis, while the bean seeds harvested at 15 DAPA and loaded along the Y-axis required the least energy to rupture (0.028 Nm). From the results, at 29 DAPA, the mean rupture power of 0.277 W, 0.212 W, and 0.314 W were recorded, when the seeds were compressed along the X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis respectively. These results will be useful in the design and development of bean seeds processing and handling equipment.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of Reactive Flow of Third-grade Exothermi Chemical Reaction with Variable Viscosity and Convective Cooling

J. F. Baiyeri, M. A. Mohammed, O. A. Esan, T. O. Ogunbayo, O. E. Enobabor

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v8i216986

The study examines incomprssible laminar Poiseuille flow of a non-Newtonian fluid and heat transfer in a cooling convective fixed wall. The third-grade exothermic reactive fluid is stimulated by heat generation, gradient pressure and thermal buoyancy force. The convective exchange of temperature with the ambient takes after Newtons cooling law. Transilation of the formulated equations to the non-dimensional form is done using relevance quantities and solutions to the nonlinear equations are provided by employing Weighted residual techniques. The obtained solutions for the flow rate, energy, flow wall friction and temperature gradient are graphically plotted for the reactive flow system. Numerical validation of results in comparison with the presented method of solution is carried out. The results revealed that some parameters which are strong heat generation or source should be consciously guided to avoid reactive solution blow up in the exothermic system.