Open Access Original Research Article

Flexural Behavior of RC Beams by Using Agricultural Waste as a Cement Reinforcement Materials

Taha A. El-Sayed, Abeer M. Erfan, Abeer M. Erfan, Ragab M. Abd El-Naby

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v7i116959

Using replacement for cement to assure sustainability is critical as the raw materials (limestone, sand, shale, clay and iron ore) used in making cement are depleting. The use of agriculture waste byproducts to replace cement is becoming an economic option. Rice husk ash (RHA), rice straw ash (RSA) and wheat straw ash (WSA) which have pozzolanic properties are viable alternatives. A study on RHA, RSA and WSA were conducted to determine their suitability. From the various grades of concrete studied show that up to 15% replacement of OPC with RHA, RSA and WSA have the potential to be used as partial cement replacement (PCR), having good compressive strength, performance and durability. In particular, the utilization of as PCR material as PCR can contribute to sustainable construction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Itoikin Irrigation Scheme Using Performance Indicator

M. A. Sanni, A. J. Adesigbin, O. Imarhia

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v7i116960

Irrigation is of major importance in many countries. It is important in terms of agricultural production and food supply, the incomes of rural people, public investment for rural development, and often recurrent public expenditures for the agricultural sector. Nigeria’s irrigation system is confronted with many challenges which included a widening gap between demand for food and domestic supply as a result of population growth and changing patterns of consumption. The evaluation study was carried out at the Itoikin Irrigation Scheme using performance indices. The site is one of the irrigation projects under the Ogun-Osun River Basin Development Authority (O-ORBDA) located in the Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State. The potency and vulnerability of Itoikin Irrigation Scheme were evaluated. The physico-chemical properties of soil, soil and water inventory were used to carryout the evaluation. Soil samples were collected at different depth and taken to the laboratory for measurement and Analysis. Soil and water inventory, Crop water requirement and evapotranspiration, Irrigation scheduling for maize and rice at the scheme and Analysis of moisture content were assessed. The range of electrical conductivity (EC) is measured and the values range from 102.8 ms cm-1 to 308 ms cm-1. The lowest electrical conductivity is 102.8 ms    cm-1 at F4, depth 30-45 cm while the highest is 308 ms cm-1 at F3, depth 15-30 cm. The hydraulic conductivity (k) ranges from 3.75 × 10-4 to 8.99 × 10-4 cm s-1. The lowest of the hydraulic conductivity was in F3 at depth of 25-50 cm in silt clay loam, while the highest was in F2 at depth of 25-50, in silt clay. The (EC) is too high and needs to be reduced. Root development will not pose as a problem as the bulk density will not restrict the development of the root, while the soil pH will allow the cultivation of maize, rice and vegetables. The minimum temperature ranged between 21.8ºC and 24.1ºC while the maximum temperature ranged from 28.2ºC to 33.2ºC. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are 22.8ºC and 30.8ºC respectively. The highest humidity was recorded on June (100%). The wind speed ranged between 156 km day and 207 km day and the values does not pose any adverse effect on the productivity of the crops. The evapotranspiration (ET) ranged between 2.5 mm day-1 and 4.22 mm day-1 with an average of 3.44 mm day-1. High values of evapotranspiration (ET) recorded in the months of February, March and April indicates that more water is loss during this period. The (ETcrop) and crop water requirement for maize at the scheme varied from 1.36 to 6.35 mm day-1 and 5.1 to 63.5 mm dec-1 respectively. The total amount of water consumed by the crop is 398.2 mm dec-1, while the effective rainfall was 212.2 mm dec-1 during the farming season. The total evapotranspiration is 494 mm dec-1. The crop evapotranspiration (ETcrop) and crop water requirement for rice at the scheme varied from 0.35 to 4.30 mm day-1 and 1.0 to 47.1 mm dec-1 respectively. The total amount of water consumed by the crop is 494.3 mm dec-1, while the effective rainfall was 250.3 mm dec-1 during the farming season. The total evapotranspiration is 491.9 mm dec-1.  The soil moisture contents were investigated to the depth of 45 cm. The minimum and maximum values are 20.6 mm and 34.66 mm on plot 6 were recorded. Down the profile, there is an increasing trend which posed the water at the scheme to be lost by deep percolation than runoff and evaporations.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Integrated Approach to the Management of Municipal Solid Waste in a Typical City in Southwest Nigeria

Olayiwola A. Oni, Toyin Omotoso, Ayowole Alo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v7i116961

A study of the prevailing management of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Ado Ekiti, a city in the southwest of Nigeria was undertaken using desk and field studies. The composition of the MSW derived from on-site waste sampling comprised plastics (28%), food (26%), paper/cardboard (14%), metal (7%), rubber (6%), textile (6%), glass (4%), leather (4%), fines less than 10mm (3%) and wood (2%). Analysis of the MSW shows that the calorific value is greater than the required minimum value of 7 MJ/kg required for applicability of incineration. However, the criteria for a regular supply of refuse derived fuel (RDF) of at least 50,000 metric tons per year required for the applicability may not be met. Furthermore, incineration of the MSW may not be applicable due to its relatively expensive installation costs. An integrated MSW framework comprising reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery (composting), incorporation of the informal sector; public private partnership (PPP); public enlightenment and enforcement of regulatory laws on sanitation is proposed. Active participation of PPP is vital to the implementation of the framework. An engineered landfill is proposed as none exists in Ado Ekiti.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Solder Ball Collapse Height in Semiconductor Packaging Using Theoretical and Solid Modeling Techniques

Jefferson Talledo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v7i116962

Semiconductor packages using solder balls as interconnect to the printed circuit board (PCB) are very popular especially in mobile products like smart phones. Recent requirement to make the package much thinner is very challenging. The solder ball collapse height after the solder ball is reflowed on the package substrate metal pad would need to be tightly controlled and aligned with the required height to meet the target overall package thickness. Another challenge is that the package has to be developed in a short period of time. In this study, theoretical and solid modeling techniques were developed to estimate the solder ball collapse height and compared with actual evaluation results. With these, the solder ball collapse height could be quickly estimated to make the package design and development faster avoiding several trial evaluations on different combinations of solder ball size, substrate pad solder mask opening diameter and solder mask thickness. Based on the estimation results, using these techniques showed good agreement with actual solder ball height measurements and have now been successfully used in coming up with final package designs in a fast and cost-effective way.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ambient Temperature Effects on a High Voltage Power Line

R. Gomba, M. Gogom, D. Lilonga-Boyenga

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2019/v7i116963

The temperature increase causes a heating of the line conductors which is at the origin of the tension drops and the losses joule increases in line which cause a dilation of the line conductors. In this paper, we investigate of the ambient temperature influence on some quantities of power lines, including line resistance, line voltage drops, joule losses, and line deflection. The interest of this study is to predict the impact of the temperature rise on the electrical network working in order to optimize the transit of the electrical energy which satisfied the thermic limits of the lines.