Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Extrusion Variables on the Colour of Dakuwa Extrudates Produced from Blends of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L) Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) and Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L)

Mohammed Yusuf

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i29798

A three factor three level full factorial experimental design was used to determine the effect of extrusion variables on the colour of the extrudate with (90, 100 and 110°C) barrel temperature (50:20:30, 20:25:25 and 50:30:20) feed composition for ratios of sorghum groundnut and tiger nut respectively at 150rpm screw speed and 3 mm die diameter using a twin screw food extrusion coocker (SLG-65-III Model China). Version 16 of Genstat was used in analysing the result. The result reveal that extrusion significantly (p<0.05) affect the colour of the extrudate. The total colour differences between the extruded samples (ΔE) were determined. The average ΔE values ranged from 7.13 to 38.82. Statistical analysis showed that the barrel temperature feed composition and feed moisture content had an effect on the total colour differences (P<0.05) of Dakuwa extrudates. The highest ΔE was found at 90 oC barrel temperature, 50:25:25 feed composition and 22% feed moisture content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive Performance of Hargreaves Model in Estimating Solar Radiation in Yola, Adamawa State Nigeria Using Minimum Climatological Data

Ojo Samuel, Alimi Taofeek Ayodele, Amos Anna Solomon

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i29801

Mathematical models have been very useful in reducing challenges encountered by researchers due to the inability of having solar radiation data or lack of instrumental sites at every point on the Earth.  This work aimed at investigating the prediction performance of Hargreaves-Samani’s model in estimating global solar radiation (GSR) out of the many other empirical models so far formulated for this purpose. This model basically uses maximum and minimum temperature data and basically used in mid-latitudes. The paper attempts to assess the predictive performance of Hargreaves-Samani’s model in the Savanna region using Yola as a case study. Estimated values of GSR from one month data adopted from the Meteorological station of the Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria was used for this purpose. Using this model shows a 95% index of agreement (IA) with the observed values; which suggests a good model performance and can also be used in estimating global solar radiation in the Savanna region particularly in areas with little or no such climatic data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of an Outdoor Path Loss Model and Signal Penetration Level in Some Selected Modern Residential and Office Apartments in Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria

V. O. A. Akpaida, F. I. Anyasi, S. I. Uzairue, A. I. Idim

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i29804

This article involves the site specific determination of an outdoor path loss model and Signal penetration level in some selected modern residential and office apartments in Ogbomosho, Oyo State. Measurements of signal strength and its associated location parameters referenced globally were carried out. Propagation path loss characteristics of Ogbomosho were investigated using three different locations with distinctively different yet modern building materials. Consequently, received signal strength (RSS) was measured at a distance d in meters, from appropriate base stations for various environments investigated. The data were analyzed to determine the propagation path loss exponent, signal penetration level and path loss characteristics. From calculations, the average building penetration losses were, 5.93dBm, 6.40dBm and 6.1dBm outside the hollow blocks B1, solid blocks B2 and hollow blocks mixed with pre cast asbestos B3, buildings respectively with a corresponding path loss exponent values of, 3.77, 3.80 and 3.63. Models were developed and validated, and used to predict the received power inside specific buildings. Moreover, the propagation models developed for the different building types can be used to predict the respective signal level within the building types, once the transmitter – receiver distance is known. The readings obtained from the developed models were compared with both the measured values and values computed using some existing models with satisfactory results obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composition, Engineering and Industrial Significance of Soil Deposits along Major Highways in Ondo State, Nigeria

O. O. Falowo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i29806

Geochemical and geotechnical studies of soil deposits along some highways in Ondo State were investigated. Field mapping revealed an underlying basement rock suite comprising granite, granite gneiss, migmatite and schist. The geochemical analysis employed X-ray fluorescence and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine the major and minor oxide geochemistry while particle size analysis test, Atterberg limit test, compaction test, specific gravity, triaxial compression test and California bearing ratio were determined following the British Standards (BS-1337). Abundances of major elements show a predominant  (43.4–61.30%),  (18.30–33.70%) and  (14.50–23.28%) constitute over 95% of the bulk chemical compositions. Other constituents include and The silica:sesquioxide ratio  of the soil shows that all sampled soil are true laterite except samples AL-1 and AF-1 (are lateritic) which correspond to samples taken from sites 1 and 3 respectively. However, the soils satisfy Federal Ministry of Works and Housing of Nigeria and AASHTO recommended standard for subgrade and subbase/base foundation construction materials, but samples AL-3, OF-2, and OF-4 need to be graded with sand or gravel to reduce its plasticity, while only sample AL-2 can serve as base course material for highway construction. It’s concluded from the results that the tested soils have more engineering applications than industrial usage since only samples from sites 1 and 3 can serve as ceramic material and brick clay provided the alumina and iron contents are reduced.  The soils in their raw state, may not be able to serve as fillers and coating materials in the paint and cosmetic industries, generally due to an amount of sand in the samples (above 50%), which makes them unsuitable.

Open Access Short Research Article

Forward Error Correction Using Turbo Codes for Multimedia Data

M. Subramanya, Shaiesta Khuteja, K. C. Varun Kumar, S. Srilatha, B. V. Srividya

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i29811

The swift growth in multimedia technology of wireless network has made it mandatory for the efficient transmission across erratic channel. The transmission of encoded video using error control techniques is grabbing a great attention, since it works over the recovery of the lost data and errors in the bit frames which occur as a result of congestion and physical channel fading. Turbo codes are attracting researchers because of their efficient performance. The Turbo code is made up of analogous concatenation of two Recursive Systematic Convolutional (RSC) coders parted by a  non-uniform interleaver. For different code rate and information block lengths greater than 104, these codes are capable of achieving low Bit-error rates (BERs) at SNRs within 1dB of Shannon’s limit. Turbo codes will assist to employ Viterbi decoders. More the number of iterations, higher is the error correction capacity and hence Turbo codes act as an elucidation for obtaining large coding gains.