Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Design of Independent Mini Hydro-photovoltaic-battery-diesel Hybrid Power System for Erin-ijesha Water Fall, Nigeria

Olumuyiwa Oludare Fagbohun, Bankole Adebanji, Micheal O. Oke

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i19760

In order to provide a sustainable energy system, especially in rural areas where grid electricity is not economically or geographically feasible, renewable energy sources appear to be one of the most effective solutions. However, the fluctuating nature and the high cost of kWhr units produced make the system unreliable and not easily affordable to the rural dwellers. This paper discussed the feasibility of renewable energy hybrid system and proposed a reliable independent Hybrid Power System (HPS) for rural application in Nigeria. Erin-Ijesha a typical rural village in Osun State, Nigeria was used as a case study. Solar irradiation, the hydro potential of the waterfall and load patterns were collected and analyzed for the study area. The electrical load for the village was estimated through the use of questionnaires. HOMER energy modeling software was used to develop the simulation models. The optimized results showed that mini-hydro-photovoltaic-battery combination with Cost of Energy, COE of $0.218/kWh is better than any other combinations considered in the work. It was revealed that purchasing electricity from the grid is better than any other hybrid combinations in terms of COE at $0.121/kWh. Nevertheless, from the result obtained, the HPS is considered cost-efficient and reliable in such rural areas especially where grid extension is geographically or economically infeasible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minimizing Scour of Contraction Stepped Spillways

A. Shawky Awad, T. Hemdan Nasr-Allah, Y. Abdallah Mohamed, G. Mohamed Abdel-Aal

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i19779

The scour downstream spillways can endanger the stability of the dams. Hence, determining the scour depth downstream of spillways was vital importance which scours holes formed around and near the foundations of spillways can endanger the stability of dams and may lead to their failure. So, this paper, investigate the scour downstream contraction stepped spillways. The experimental flume used 16.2 m length, 66 cm width and 65 cm depth. The used number of stepped spillways was 4 Sep, contraction ratio was 60% from flume width and the opening area in breaker 10% from the breaker area on all sides putting in down of breakers. The breaker used above the stepped spillway with different shapes of openings as rectangle, triangle and trapezoidal and different numbers by 2, 4, 6 and 8 of beakers. The divergent angle changes by 45º, 30º, 15ºand 10º. The results were showed that the best numbers of openings is 4openings with rectangle shape because it reduces the scour by 54.51%. In finally to improve this scour by divergent angle lead to the best angle is 10º can minimize the scour is 65.38%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction and Appraisal of Solar Radiations and Its Intensity in South East Geopolitical Region, Nigeria

Ogunoh, Arinze Victor, Digitemie, Innocent Eteli, Aguh, Patrick Sunday

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i19783

This research work shows the variability of solar parameters. The parameters that are solar radiation, sun intensity and temperature were optimized and predicted in other to investigate its influence in Permanent site of Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, South Eastern part of Nigeria. The research was conducted for the period of five days, 6:00am to 6:00pm daily on 6th to 10th December, 2017. Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions used at an investigation of solar power and necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical 'area. Instrument used for measuring the solar radiation is solarimeter which is based on the thermal or photovoltaic principles. The device harness two main components for measuring solar radiation, namely- direct radiation and diffuse radiation, with sensors based on the photovoltaic principles. The research tends to optimize and to develop the intended sun intensity and solar radiation principles and properties of the environs. From the optimization results, the maximum sun intensity of the geographical area is 957.620 w/m2 while the minimum sun intensity of the area is 2 w/m2. However, the maximum temperature of the geographical area is 39.4˚С while the minimum temperature of the geographical area is 18.8˚С. The average sun intensity of the case study is 356.644 w/m2. The optimization technic employed will ensure the efficiency of solar radiation, sun intensity and temperature variability of the geographical area in the study as a key to climatic issues and solar systems manufacturing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Turbine Dimensionless Coefficients and the Net Head/Flow Rate Characteristic for a Simplified Pico Hydro Power System

Alex Okibe Edeoja, Matthew Ekoja, Joshua Sunday Ibrahim

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i19787

The basic operational parameters of a simplified pico-hydropower system with provision for water recycling were investigated. Five simplified turbine of runner diameters 0.45, 0.40, 0.35, 0.30 and 0.25 m were designed, locally fabricated, and tested in conjunction with five PVC pipes of diameters 0.0762, 0.0635, 0.0508, 0.0445 and 0.0381 m as penstocks. Five simple nozzles of area ratios 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 were fabricated for each penstock diameter. The turbines were successively mounted at the foot of an overhead reservoir such that the effective vertical height from the outlet of the reservoir to the plane of the turbine shaft was 6.95 m. A 1.11 kW electric pump was used to recycle the water downstream of the turbine back to the overhead reservoir. The mean maximum and minimum rotational speeds of the shaft of each turbine were measured for each penstock diameter and nozzle area ratio, and the volumes of water displaced in the reservoirs were also monitored. These measured data were used to compute shaft power and system volumetric flow rate for each operation. Dimensionless flow, head and power coefficients, and specific speed were computed and functional characteristics relating them developed. This standard procedure generally used for the analysis of geometrically similar hydraulic machines have been applied to this system and the results obtained will be invaluable in development of the system into a simple, environmentally friendly and decentralized small power generation system that could potentially contribute positively to the energy mix in Nigeria. The possibility of scaling the system to accommodate larger turbine and penstock diameters, and as a result higher capacity alternators exist and is a target for future developments.

Open Access Short Research Article

Optimization of Packaging Line Performance: A Case Study of AB Breweries in Nigeria

Chinedu James Ujam, Harold Chukwuemeka Godwin

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2018/v1i19764

This paper presents an approach for improving productivity in breweries. A case study of AB brewery was adopted. Traditionally, packaging line improve  performance and productivity based on extrapolation of past experience, but in recent times, the traditional method could not meet up with high increase in demand of products, hence the need to adopt a new approach of using information technology and software to analyze problems and improving performance. Eleven weeks of the following data were collected and calculated; production outputs and running time; OPI and Target; and Packaging line downtimes. Downtimes were grouped into machine breakdown, planned downtime, and external downtimes and analyzed with histogram to know the impact of each group to the overall downtimes. To apply fishbone diagram, it was further grouped into Material, Method, Man and Machine after which a Pareto graph was plotted to understand the area of focus in tackling production system problems. Tecnomatrix plant simulation software was adopted to develop a simulation model that mimic the real system which further found hidden problems existing within the production system. Design of experiment was carried out to select the best alternatives from the results generated, and finally excel spreadsheet interface was developed for better analysis and performance tracking of optimized system. Result of data analysis indicated that machine breakdown and external downtimes were the major problems affecting performance, while simulation model revealed that unregulated system and un-optimized regulated lines recorded high machine breakdown and speed losses which affected the production performance output respectively. Design of experiment found the best speed combination of sensors to optimize two labellers.