Open Access Short communication

Preparation of Ceramsite from Solid Waste

Maqianwen Si

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 178-184
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12775

A large number of solid waste stockpiles produce pollution and harm to the atmosphere, soil, water bodies, and biosphere. Ceramic pellets are an emerging material with excellent performance and wide application. Ceramic pellets have many good properties, so they are widely researched and applied, especially in recent years, the research and application of ceramic pellets in construction projects are particularly prominent in the research process of industrial solid waste resourceization, which can not only consume a large amount of industrial solid waste, but also can achieve greater economic benefits. The characteristics, properties, classification of ceramic pellets, research and application status of ceramic pellets using industrial solid waste at home and abroad are reviewed.

Open Access Short communication

Hydraulic Vibration Hammer without Resonance Technology Status Study

Li Yupeng, You Rongyu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 185-192
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12776

Hydraulic vibratory hammer using the working principle of vibratory pile sinking is an important equipment in pile foundation construction, which can be used for sinking and extracting piles. It has a wider range of application than the drop hammer for pile sinking by the impact method and the static hammer for pile sinking by the press-in method, which can significantly reduce the resistance of piles during sinking and extraction and improve the working efficiency. However, it is difficult to avoid the resonance phenomenon in the process of starting and stopping by using the principle of vibratory pile sinking, and the resonance phenomenon will cause a high concentration of stress in the vibratory pile hammer parts and reduce its service life. In this paper, the resonance-free technology of hydraulic vibratory hammer is studied in the hope of promoting the development of hydraulic vibratory hammer. On this basis, the technology of innovative hydraulic vibratory hammer without resonance is used to reduce its cost and promote commercialization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Manufacture of Radiosonde Based on Arduino Pro Mini Using BME280 Sensor

Ida Pertiwi Sari, Anak Agung Ngurah Gunawan, I. Made Satriya Wibawa, I. Ketut Putra, Mahmud Yusuf

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12758

Aims: To produce low-cost Radiosonde instruments with high accuracy, which are expected to be used as a reference in developing upper aerial observation instruments so as to reduce observation costs

Study Design:  Design of Radiosonde Based on Arduino Pro Mini Using BME280 Sensor.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physics, Udayana University, and Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG), Region-III Badung, between June 2022 and August 2022.

Methodology: Calibration is done by comparing the output value of the BME280 sensor and the BMKG calibration standard tool. The calibrated parameters are temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The relationship between the measurement value of the design tool and the standard tool is determined by the linear regression method to obtain the correction equation.

Results: Radiosonde instruments based on Arduino Pro Mini using the BME280 sensor have been produced. The measurement accuracy obtained for the temperature parameter is 99.9968% with uncertainty (U95) of ±0.18ºC, the humidity parameter is 99.296% with uncertainty (U95) of ±2.9%RH, the air pressure parameter is 99.99998% with uncertainty (U95) of ±0.15 hPa. The accuracy value indicates that the resulting tool has a good level of accuracy to the standard tool.

Conclusion: In this research, has been produced a Radiosonde instruments at a low-cost with high accuracy and precision, which have been calibrated with BMKG standard tools.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parametric Prediction and Optimization of Mild Steel Geometry Composition Using TIG Welding Methods

Chinwuko Emmanuel Chuka, Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Ezeanyim Okechukwu Chiedu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12759

The research focused on the application of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method on mild steel metal materials and its optimization of the welding input factors along with its mechanical response parameters using the response surface method (RSM). The study has reviewed many research works alongside works of literature related to the study, and also revealed that the specific studied mild steel weld bead geometry mechanical properties on its weldment have not been studied to the best of the researchers' knowledge. The material under study is IS 2062, why the method applied for the analysis is the response surface method of optimization. The result shows the optimal solutions of both the input factors and the response parameters. The optimization results show that the optimal solutions for input process factors are: a gas flow rate of 16.00m3/s, welding speed is 113.221m/s, welding voltage is 18.00V, and welding current is 217.914A. The optimization results for the response parameters are; 344.628MPa for Hardness strength, 331.042 MPa for Yield strength, 25.272% for percentage Elongation, 452.780 for ultimate tensile strength, and 409.484 MPa for shear stress, and 118.00 J for impact energy response. The overall desirability of the models developed to achieve the optimal solutions result is 78.41%. The results will serve as bases for mild steel companies and industrialization. The research will also serve as a decision-making system in engineering and industrialization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strength Characteristics of Concrete Partially Replaced with Glass Powder and Palm Kernel Shells

John K. Quarm Junior, Charles K. Kankam, Christopher K. Dzivenu, Vincent K. Akortia

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 24-38
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12760

In view of the ever depletion of sources of construction materials, there is a need to explore the feasibility of using palm kernel shells and glass as replacements for natural crushed aggregates in Portland cement concrete. Concrete specimens produced with 25% palm kernel shells as partial replacement of coarse aggregate and varying percentages of recycled glass powder as pozzolana were tested for their workability, compressive strength, and tensile strength. Six different concrete specimens were prepared using recycled glass powder contents of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% in 1:2:4 concrete mix for compressive strength and split tensile strength. Palm kernel shells and recycled glass powder pozzolana were respectively found to be good replacements for natural aggregates and cement in concrete production. With regard to the workability of the concrete, it was found that palm kernel shells and recycled glass powder concrete had similar characteristics to conventional concrete mixes. Partially replaced palm kernel shells and recycled glass powder showed a strength variation of about 15% from natural crushed aggregate concrete. It is recommended that glass powder pozzolana in 25% palm kernel shell aggregate concrete should not exceed 15%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding of Traffic Signs by Drivers on Urban Roads – A Case Study of Ilorin, Kwara State

Sikirat Damilola Mustapha, B. A. Ibitoye

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12761

The effectiveness of traffic signs, which are used often to promote safe driving and are designed to convey critical information quickly, is contingent on drivers' ability to understand them. Therefore, researchers in Ilorin set out to determine how well-understood and compliant traffic control devices were among drivers representing a range of demographics. The study was conducted using a descriptive survey research approach. The population for this study covers commercial and private drivers in Ilorin. The three local government areas in Ilorin were selected Ilorin South, East and West. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three hundred and eighty-four (384) drivers from the population for the study. The research instrument used for the study is a well-structured questionnaire. Statistics including frequency counts and percentages were used to examine the demographic information, the total proportion of drivers who properly recognized the traffic control device, and the variables that contribute to drivers' inability to comprehend traffic control devices. The average comprehension percentage of warning signs, regulatory signs, information sign, driver’s knowledge of road marking 56.1%, 60.3%, 64.6% and 59% respectively. The study's findings revealed that 60% of drivers in Ilorin generally comprehended traffic control devices. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Single Screw Extruder for the Production of Floating Fish Feed

A. P. Olalusi, S. A. Olaoye, J. Isa, A. S. Oyerinde, C. Ayo-Olalusi, D. O. Adesuyi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 48-58
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12762

An extruding machine for the production of floating fish feed was designed and fabricated. Performance evaluation of the fabricated floating fish feed extruding machine was done. The design of the hopper; shaft, barrel, screw and die of the machine were done using standard equations. Effect of extrusion parameters which are moisture content (20% 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%) die size (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm) and screw speed (150 rpm; 200 rpm, 250 rpm, 300 rpm and 350 rpm) on expansion ratio, floatability, specific mechanical energy and efficiency were evaluated. The result shows that moisture content has significant effect on all the variables, as highest expansion ratio of 32% was obtained at 30% moisture content and 6 mm die size. Highest feed floatability was 97% at 30% moisture content and 6 mm die size. The highest specific mechanical energy of the machine was 30 kJ/kg at 40% moisture content and 4 mm die size. Die size variation also shows high impact on the machine performance, showing highest efficiency of 83% at 10 mm die size and 250 rpm while the floatation rate was 98% at 6mm die size. Screw speed has significant effect on efficiency having the highest as 85% at 150 rpm and floatability of 93% at 150 rpm while the specific mechanical energy of 29 kJ/kg was the highest at 350 rpm. Operation condition was at its best at 30% moisture content; 6 mm die size and 150 rpm of screw speed. The feed moisture content, machine die size and screw speed have significant effect on the performance of the machine. Careful selection and combination of these factors will give optimum performance of the machine during extrusion of resin.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Safety Factors of Embankment Pipeline

Ying Li

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 74-81
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12765

With the rapid development of the modern economy, the safety of the embankment of the pipeline through the embankment is particularly important. Combining the construction method of the pipeline, the location of the pipeline crossing with the exit and entry points, the burial depth of the pipeline below the riverbed with the scouring depth of the riverbed, the permeability coefficient of the embankment and the stratum, the initial water level on the waterward side and the backwater side of the embankment, and other factors are analyzed to provide a theoretical basis for the future implementation of the project.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wire Length Formulation Using Wire Density, Volume and Weight for Hand Calculation and Verification of Wire Usage

Mariane A. Mendoza

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 82-86
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12766

Wire Bonding process uses precious materials such as gold, silver, and copper wires to create a connection from the die to the strip and completing the circuitry of a semiconductor unit. Wire consumption is identified by length that is consumed per unit and higher consumption leads to inflated cost of the product. Upon unit processing, the standard wire consumption per unit is 0.036 meters equivalent to 27800 units per 1000 meters spool but only produced 26900 units. The study focuses on validation of the possible cause of lacking 800 units equivalent to 32 meters of wire length. Using the gold wire density, volume, and weight of the wire, wire length is formulated that can be used for hand calculation and verification of actual wire length. Methodology used for validation resulted that the actual unit consumption for wire length is at 0.037 meters which lacks 0.001 meter per unit, and this is equivalent to approximately 800 units per 1000-meter spool. In parallel, supply is compliant with the 1000 meters of wire per spool. Through the results collected, it was concluded that the standard is not sufficient to be the reference for the actual wire consumption resulting to the impression of high wire consumption. It was recommended for the alignment of the standards with the actual validation using the methodology stated on the study and hand calculation using wire length formula.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methanolysis of Africa Pear Seed Oil via Thermally Activated Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Ash (TAEPFBA) Catalyst, ANN Prediction and Sensitivity Analysis

O. E. Umeagukwu, O. D. Onukwuli, C. N. Ude, C. O. Asadu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 87-103
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12767

This study investigated the catalytic effect of thermal modified empty palm fruit bunch ash (TAEPFBA) on the transesterification reaction of Africa pear seed oil (APSO) with optimization of the process variable, and relative contribution of each variable ascertained. The TAEPFBA was synthesized from empty palm fruit bunches while the APSO was extracted via solvent extraction. The oil and catalyst were characterized using American Standard for Testing of Material (ASTM) and analytical tools. The biodiesel was produced at optimal condition and the yield of biodiesel was predicted with artificial neural network (ANN). The methyl ester produced was characterized and compared with standard properties for its application. The results showed that the oil and catalyst had comparable properties with other oils and catalysts that have been used for transesterification. The optimal conditions for transesterification reaction are temperature of 60oC, reaction time of 3hrs, 10:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 3wt % catalyst dosage and agitation speed of 300rpm with biodiesel yield of 75%. The biodiesel produced was within the acceptable standard. The ANN predicted the yield of biodiesel with a mean square error (MSE) value of 0.0214 less than 0.05 level of significant. The contributive impact of each process variable shows that the temperature has the highest relative impact on the yield of biodiesel while the methanol/oil molar ratio has the least contribution The overall result shows that the catalyst (TAEPFBA) has the potential to convert the APSO to alkyl ester and the yield can be predicted with ANN tool.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Performance of Hydrocyclone Separator for Biodiesel Production

S. A. Fatounde, T. A. Oni, A. S. Idowu

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 115-122
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12769

Hydrocyclone is an equipment that uses a cyclone or tangential injection flow process with centrifugal forces to separate liquids of different densities. The denser liquid move downwards in a spiral path into an underflow chamber, while clean liquid which is less dense move upwards to the center of the spiral, towards the top outlet. Colman and Thew’s hydrocyclone geometry analysis approached was used in the design and the assumed inlet chamber diameter (D) used for this design was 150 mm and a reducing section length of 1500 mm at a reducing angle of 20°. The capacity of the designed hydrocyclone system in volume is 5.5 liters. The developed machine was tested with 15 liters of palm kernel oil (PKO) as raw material using two different pressures gauge (70 and 80 kPa) and also effect acid concentration (sulphuric acid) at 3 different experimental runs. After the experiments, it was deduced that at constant temperature level, as the pressure rate increases, there is a corresponding increase in the discharge rate at the underflow and overflow outlets where 2.04 minutes and 1.67 minutes were used to separate biodiesel and glycerin under 70 and 80 kPa respectively. Also, it was deduced experimentally that PKO with sulphuric acid gives a higher yield of biodiesel of 47.74% while the one without has 38.49% yield under same experimental and operational conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Proposed Air-land Distribution Network for Delivery of Emergency Supplies in Mexico

Ramon-Gabriel Garcia-Martinez, Tania-Lucero Reyes-Ortiz, Gloria-Karina Herrera-Cortina, Eduardo Belmonte-García, Lizbeth Calihua-Pacheco, Santiago-Omar Caballero-Morales

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 123-133
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12770

Within logistics and the COVID-19 pandemic, the distribution of vaccines represented an important challenge as time was vital to attend the needs of the world population. This aspect involved an efficient the distribution chain between vaccine producers and consumers. For this purpose, appropriate transportation infrastructure, analysis of demand rate, inventory planning, and vaccine distribution locations were needed. The present work proposes an air-land distribution network which can be adapted for the delivery of vaccines, or prompt delivery of other emergency resources. This network is aimed to decentralize the international reception of these goods through an alternative of main international airports which can connect to local airports to speed up their delivery. Then a land distribution network is designed to reach the final application centers. The results of the network on a test instance provided insights regarding the challenges and practical implications for a real implementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Structural Performance of Ceramic Waste as Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate on Properties of Concrete

Evans Biney, Vincent K. Akortia, Charles K. Kankam, John K. Quarm Junior, Peter Adzakey

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 134-147
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12771

The need to reduce the increasing demand for crushed granite as coarse aggregate as well as the need to safeguard the environment from degradation has given rise to various researches on alternative materials that can serve the same purpose while minimizing environment hazard. This study assessed the suitability of waste ceramic tiles as coarse aggregate in concrete and to ascertain its strength against normal crushed granite. Crushed waste ceramic tiles from ceramic manufacturing industries and construction sites were mixed with crushed granite stones as partial replacement for concrete. A mix ratio of 1: 1.11: 2.72 (cement: sand: stones) for nominal C30 concrete was produced with (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100) percent volume ceramic waste aggregate replacement for crushed granite at a constant water-cement ratio of 0.5. Concrete cubes of size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced and tested for 7 days and 28 days compressive strength, density and water absorption. The results revealed the viability of waste ceramic tiles as partial replacement for crushed granite in concrete production, but the partial replacement should not exceed 20% as recommended maximum for structural concrete. This mode of recycling ceramic waste could positively sustain the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of the Trapez-Method to the Calculation of Coupling Matrices between Uniaxial Guide Modes

Charmolavy G. L. Nkouka Moukengue, B. Mafouna Kiminou, Odilon Nguembo

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 148-154
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12772

In this paper, we determine the different possible couplings at the discontinuities of the two circular and rectangular waveguides using the trapez-method. The development of the normal modes of the fields allows us to obtain the amplitude of the fields of the transverse electric (TE) and magnetic (TM) modes. The calculation of the coupling integrals allows us to obtain the coupling matrices and to verify if the coupling is possible or not between the modes of these two waveguides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ascertaining the Knowledge Level of Fresh Graduates of Civil Engineering and Allied Programmes on the Types and Primary Functions of Geosynthetics: A Study from Ghana

Matthew Kwaw Somiah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 155-164
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12773

This study was informed by the lack of country-specific studies that established the knowledge level in geosynthetics among fresh graduates with a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering or allied programmes in developing countries. Thus, this study seeks to establish the knowledge level of fresh graduates with a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering or allied programmes in Ghana on the types and primary functions of geosynthetics. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and one sample t-test. The analysis revealed an overall mean score of 2.06 and 1.74 regarding the knowledge level among fresh graduates on the types and primary functions of geosynthetics respectively. Thus, compared with the hypothesized mean of 3.5 for the study, there was generally a low knowledge level regarding the types and primary functions of geosynthetics among fresh graduates with a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering or allied programmes in Ghana. However, Ghana’s case was of great concern as the fresh graduates were only knowledgeable in 3 out of the 9 types of geosynthetics and 4 out of the 10 primary functions of geosynthetics. The uniqueness of the study lies in the fact that it empirically established the knowledge level of fresh graduates in civil engineering, building technology, and construction technology and management programmes at the bachelor’s level on the types and primary functions of geosynthetics which hitherto was not in existence. It recommends the review of the existing curriculum for building technology, civil engineering, and construction technology and management programmes at the bachelor’s level to include adequate content on geosynthetics as a soil improvement technology. Again, the study contributes to the existing literature on geosynthetics and forms the basis for future studies in geosynthetics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity Improvement through Work Study Techniques: A Case of a Modern Rice Mill in Ikwo, Ebonyi State

Innocent Nnanna, Julius Egwu Arua

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 193-203
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12777

Aim: To explore the use of the work-study techniques in the efficiency improvement in the productivity of a firm or industry. A firm's profit can be increased through productivity improvement by reducing non-value-added operations and adopting a new process for a particular activity. 

Study Design: Currently, productivity improvement is a crucial factor in industries. Therefore, one of the primary goals of this firm is to improve productivity which enhances its long-run profit. The most critical tool for enhancing the firm's productivity is work study. Hence, this study noted the bottleneck and provided an appropriate technique for productivity improvement.

Place and Duration of Study: A modern rice mill in Ikwo Ebonyi State Nigeria, between March 2021 and October 2022.

Methodology: A method study was carried out using well-designed questionnaire techniques with interconnected critical analysis of a particular production line. A reasonable work content reduction was obtained when the proposed improvement method was applied. A stopwatch was used to obtain the time study with much emphasis on the standard time for the operation sequences. As a result, each workstation capacity per day was calculated.

Results: The result shows that the firm productivity index improved by 14.29% when method study and work measurement were applied in the production line. Implementation of the proposed production line improved productivity from the old production line by 14.29%. Previously, the work content per ton was 4892 mins. Considering the line balancing and critical analysis of the proposed technique, the proposed work content took 3649 mins to be completed, this leads to a reduction of work content by 1243 mins after the line balancing and analysis. The proposed method helps to increase productivity to 14.29% with 25.41% reduction of work content and line balancing.

Conclusion: In the Ikwo modern rice mill, productivity improvement is considered a critical factor for increasing the profit margin. Therefore, an increase in the profitable index of the firm is the function of productivity improvement, as a result of proper planning and control of the available input variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Solar Power Generating System with Auto-Tracking and Data Logging Devices

A. S. Onawumi, N. A. Akinrinade, M. A. Olojede, A. O. Ajayeoba

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 212-222
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12779

Solar power systems have become a viable wellspring of sustainable energy over the years and are commonly used for a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Capturing and storing the maximum amount of available energy for prediction and future analysis have been the major problems. This study aimed at developing a solar power generating system with solar tracking and data logging devices. The Dual Axes Solar Power Generating System (DASPGS) was developed using a combination of hardware and software systems consisting of three major subsystems: mechanical, electro-mechanical, and electrical tracker parts. C-language programme was used in conjunction with the Arduino Uno board for logging the power generated from the DASPGS and already fabricated Fixed Axis Solar Power Generating System (FASPGS). The power generated was stored on the created web page and the Secure Digital (SD) card. Data were harvested and the performance evaluations of the DASPGS over FASPGS were determined for 28 days. DASPGS gave average power of 22.88, 22.25, 24.49, and 25.92 Watts per week while FASPGS gave 5.16, 15.00, 16.23, and 15.74 Watts per week. A significant difference between DASPGS and FASPGS gave a P value of .004. This study showed that the DASPGS performed better than FASPGS. The system developed finds its application in the area of solar power prediction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technological Challenges of an Engineering Department Amidst Pandemic

Jimmy Adora Nebrida, Oliver Oliveros

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 236-251
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12781

Technology management is more important than ever due to the quick development of technology across all fields of specialization. The study is grounded on the challenges faced by lecturers and students of the engineering department and highlighted the mechanisms used in finding the solutions. The study made use of a qualitative research design to gather in-depth insights about the problem and generate new ideas for research. The respondents of the study include the department head and lecturers of the department. The study used maxQDA software in the analysis of responses to develop a model based on the existing practices of an engineering division. This model includes mechanisms to address the technological challenges like regular meetings and collaborative meetings with teachers and students. These practices address the technological challenges on management, teaching, and learning. The school must embody key characteristics to face all challenges and must start with collaboration among the teachers and students before extruding to collaboration with external stakeholders like alumni and local government units. This study further showed the effect of poor internet connectivity, thus school administrators should look into the need providing internet connection in the campus for teachers needs in providing effective instructions. The results further showed the challenge in adapting new technologies like software and online platform intended for learning of students. The head of the division must be supportive of the teaching needs of the staff which results in good relations and collaboration of subordinates and students. Lastly, lecturers must be compassionate to teaching to address the learning needs of students and consider methods like video clips, tutorial sessions, and consultation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Towards Migrating from Monolithic-Based Web Application to Micro Service: A Case Study of ezScrum Product Backlog

Dedy Kurniawan

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 252-271
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12782

The software ezScrum is a legacy web application that has been developed and maintained for more than ten years. With web technology constantly evolving, the ezScrum development team has found it increasingly difficult to keep up and many older technologies are still used. A consequence is the slowdown of release. Examining the issues, we have found the main cause to be the coupling of ezScrum modules since ezScrum is a monolith. Thus, effort has been taken to convert ezScrum into a set of microservices so that coupling is reduced. This thesis reports our work on extracting the product backlog from ezScrum. As demonstrated, the extracted product backlog microservice operates as an independent web application that collaborates with other extracted microservices from ezScrum including account management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on Engine Speed Control Based on Tuna Swarm Optimization

Shu-Man Guo, Jun-Kai Guo, Yu-Guo Gao, Peng-Yan Guo, Fu-Jun a, Huang, Shi-Chang Wang, Zhi-Chao Lou, Xu Zhang

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 272-280
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12783

Accurate control of engine speed can effectively improve fuel economy and comfort. Currently, the commonly used PID parameter setting methods for engine speed control include Ziegler-Nichols method and gradient method, etc. Although they have good performance in parameter setting, they still have shortcomings such as slow response to the control process and long stability time. In this paper, the tuna swarm optimization is used to adjust the PID parameters, and the optimized results are compared with the traditional setting results. The experimental results show that under the same test conditions, the response speed can be reduced by 3.2-6.2s, the maximum overshoot can be reduced by 0.5%-5%, and the maximum steady-state error can be reduced by 0.6%-0.8%.The tuna swarm optimization has an obvious effect in PID parameter optimization of engine speed control, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of other group optimization algorithms in PID parameter optimization of engine speed control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recycling of Waste Plastic for the Production of Road Interlocking Paving Stone in Nigeria

Praise Onimisi Dawodu, Apata Akindele, Udeme Imoh

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 296-301
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12785

As the demand for construction materials increases, the need to find alternative construction materials that are readily available and cheaper is imperative. This research attempts to explore the recycling of waste plastic as a complete replacement for the Portland cement used in the production of pavement interlocking paving stones.

Three specimens were produced, by varying the ratio of the waste plastic with the fine and coarse aggregates. The content of melted waste plastic in specimens A, B, and C was 33%, 29%, and 20% respectively. The specimens were crushed to determine their compressive strength. Specimen A having 33% melted waste plastic had the highest compressive strength of 25.7 N/mm2, For effective binding with the aggregates, the melted waste plastic should not be less than 30% of the mixture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of an Anisotropic Magneto-Resistive Sensor Electrical Energy Meter

Fredrick M. Kagucia, Owino George, Franklin M. Manene

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 302-320
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12786

This paper presents a digital electrical energy meter based on an Anisotropic Magneto-Resistive (AMR) current sensor and an Arduino micro microcontroller. This study aimed at designing and fabricating a digital electrical energy meter using the AMR sensor which overcomes some of the shortcomings of traditional current sensors used in most energy meters, display electrical energy, consumer‟s terminal voltage, supply current, power factor and „real-time‟ power consumption. The study was carried out in the Department of Electrical and Control Engineering, Egerton University between September 2018 and December 2020. The meter was designed using Proteus 8 Professional software and fabricated on a printed circuit board. Algorithms were developed in C-language and stored in the microcontroller to continuously sample voltage and current signals derived from a successive supply voltage divider and the AMR current sensor, respectively. The sampling frequency was 2 kHz and every 10,000 samples were carried out to compute the Root Mean Square (RMS) values of voltage and current. The fabricated meter digitally computed the cumulative electrical energy in kilo-Watt-hours (kWhrs) and the other variables and displayed them on a 16×2 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) after a consumption of every 0.01 kWhrs. Statistical results on the displayed variables indicated that the meters tested were not significantly different at 0.95 confidence level implying that those meters had similar performance. The extra displays are important and useful to power consumers and service providers in energy utilization and improvement of the quality of the power supplied. Power factor is an exceptional feature in the prototype meter beneficial to both consumers and power agencies in the decision-making process of reducing bills and power distribution costs leading to improved efficiency and service delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Treating Wastewater with a Laboratory Benchtop Septic Systems

Klaus Dölle, Malina Fritz

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 321-327
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12787

Efficient wastewater treatment technologies are needed to curb water scarcities and prevent the spread of diseases and contamination of water sheds. Decentralized wastewater treatment systems or respectively septic systems are easy to afford and handle – especially in rural areas. In this research a developed 19.9 l (5 gal.) laboratory septic system containing 15 l (3.96 gal.) of liquid was operated at a temperature of 18°C (64.4°F) with wastewater collected from a primary clarifier of a local wastewater treatment plant. The laboratory study included a hydraulic retention time of 30-, 10- and 5-day with and without addition of bacteria from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and commercially available bacteria for enhancement of septic systems.

Operating the laboratory septic system at a 10-day HRT showed the best performance for all system operations with and without enhancement bacteria in comparison n to 30- and 5-day HRT.

The developed laboratory septic system proved to be a valuable way to investigate septic systems performance on a laboratory scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Fresh Concrete Performance and Water Absorption Characteristics of Concrete with Partially Replaced Broken Tiles

Evans Biney, Vincent K. Akortia, Charles K. Kankam, John K. Quarm Junior, Peter Adzakey

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 339-352
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12789

A number of research seeking alternative materials to augment normal coarse aggregate to reduce overreliance on granite while saving the environment is on the rise.  This study assessed the workability, water absorption and density of concrete with waste ceramic tiles as partial replacement for crushed granite coarse aggregate. Crushed waste ceramic tiles from ceramic manufacturing industries and construction sites were blended with crushed granite for concrete production. A mix ratio 1: 1.11: 2.72 (cement: sand: coarse) for nominal C30 concrete was produced with (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100) percent volume ceramic waste replacement for crushed granite at constant water-cement ratio of 0.5 to produce concrete cubes and cured for 7 and 28 days. Tests conducted revealed concrete workability and density decreased with increasing ceramic waste while water absorption increased with increasing ceramic waste but not above acceptable limits. However, use of waste ceramic tiles as partial replacement for crushed granite in concrete is encouraged, but not exceeding 20% maximum for structural concrete. This mode of recycling ceramic waste could positively promote green construction for sustained environment; hence, it should be encouraged with conditional limitation and further research of its use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wind Speed Thresholds for Adjusting Conventional Design Criteria for the Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine without Compromising Odour Control

Peter Appiah Obeng, Eric Awere, Panin Asirifua Obeng, Michael Oteng-Peprah, Samuel Barnie

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 353-362
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12790

Aims: The objective of this paper is to re-evaluate the wind speed threshold at which the 100 mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) vent pipe may be used without compromising the ventilation rate required for effective odor control in a ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine. The paper also sought to investigate the chances of leveraging upon high wind speeds to grant user preferences for multiple windows and installation of insect screens, which are conventionally forbidden.

Study Design: A comparative experimental design was carried out in a VIP latrine with internal cubicle dimensions of 1.2 m x 1.5 m built over a pit of cross-section 1.2 m x 2.5 m and depth of 3.0 m which was fitted with a 100 mm PVC vent pipe.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental setup was located on the compound of a public basic school in Prampram, a peri-urban coastal community in Southern Ghana. The setup was monitored for twelve hours a day (5 am to 5 pm) for twelve days.

Methodology: The experimental setups comprised of four designs of the VIP latrine: single-window and multi-window designs each with and without insect screen in the window. The ventilation rate in each modified design was monitored simultaneously with the external wind speed.

Results: The results of the study indicate that the 100 mm PVC vent pipe could attain the recommended ventilation rate of 20 m3/h at an average wind speed as slow as 1.5 m/s as compared to the 3 m/s previously suggested.  The influence of wind speed on the ventilation rate is insignificant at wind speed variations not exceeding 0.5 m/s when the 100 mm PVC vent pipe is used.

Conclusion: At an average wind speed of 1.5 m/s, either the multiple-window design or insect screen used in combination with the 100 mm PVC vent pipe could attain the recommended ventilation rate and should not be outrightly forbidden. However, a wind speed threshold of 2.5 m/s is required for the adoption of the multi-window design with insect screens when the 100 mm PVC vent pipe is used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Employees Motivational Factors on Total Quality Management Implementation in the Construction Industry

Samuel Kwame Ansah, Emmanuel Tekpe

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 373-382
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12792

This study determines the employees’ motivational factors and their influence on Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation in the construction industry. The instrument used in the study was a survey questionnaire with a sample size of 536 out of the 641 questionnaires which were administered to population consists of top management in the Ghanaian construction industry. The analysis was carried out using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) technique. The study identified the following motivational factors that influence the successful implementation of TQM in the construction industry: Teamwork, Recognition of employees, Conducive working environment, Employee involvement in TQM activities, Education and training/re-training of staff, Salary/position promotion, Bonus scheme, Employee commitment, Employee reward, and Availability of a suggestion forum for employees. The findings revealed that all the motivational factors considered in the study have a high influence on TQM implementation in the construction industry. The study therefore suggests that managers should consider these identified motivational factors when applying the principle of Total Quality Management in the construction industry. Consequently, employees that are motivated with these identified motivational factors will help to achieve successful implementation of TQM in the construction industry and subsequently give their best effort to accomplish the job.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of the Bond Behavior between Concrete and Deformed Rebar

Lin Fan

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12763

As a composite structure, the most important performance of the reinforced concrete structure is the bond behavior between them. Good bond behavior is the key to ensuring the service performance of reinforced concrete structures, which affects the performance of the structure at various stages in its life cycle. However, in the actual structural analysis, it is generally believed that the two do not produce relative slips, resulting in some differences between the analyzed structure and the actual engineering situation. At present, many scholars all over the world have used different test methods, comprehensively considered various factors affecting the bond behavior between deformed rebar and concrete, and obtained many conclusions. In this paper, based on the relevant research results of many scholars, starting from the bond mechanism, the experimental research method of the bond behavior, and the influencing factors of the bond behavior, a detailed review of the research status of the bonding performance of reinforced concrete is carried out. It is hoped that it can provide a reference to scholars that will study the bond behavior of reinforced concrete in the future.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Preparation of Grout from Quartz Sand

Yingying Shi

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 67-73
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12764

Cementitious grout is a paste made of cementitious materials, mineral admixtures, admixtures and water mixed in a certain ratio, which is widely used in construction projects. Due to its good physical and chemical properties, grout is now also playing great potential in the industrial field. As grout is often used in areas with high strength requirements such as repair and reinforcement of concrete, installation of large equipment, and grouting, the particle packing density has a great impact on its performance, so how to improve the particle packing density to enhance its strength is particularly important.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Reinforcement-concrete Bonded Anchorage

Peng Huang, Yuanbing Cheng

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 104-114
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12768

In order to obtain the study of the bonding properties between the reinforcement-concrete and give full play to the material properties, a lot of research has been carried out on reinforcement-concrete. Existing reinforcement-concrete studies contain mainly reinforcement-concrete bonds, reinforcement lap, and anchorage of reinforcement. The reinforcement-concrete bond test mainly measures the bond-slip curve between the two to determine the bond strength between reinforcement and concrete. The reinforcement lap test is mainly used for the performance study of the anchorage length of reinforcement in concrete, whether the lap bars are in contact with each other, which can be divided into two forms: contact lap and indirect lap. The anchorage test of reinforcement is conducted to study the reduction of the connection length between reinforcement and concrete while meeting the force requirements. According to a large number of tests, the bond strength of the reinforcement is affected by the shape of the mixed reinforcement, the thickness of the protective layer of the diameter concrete, the spacing of the reinforcement, the transverse reinforcement restraint, and the material properties of the reinforcement and concrete. This paper discusses the test methods, influencing factors, and the lack of existing research in the study of the performance of reinforcement-concrete bonding, and lap and anchorage properties.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Typical Vehicle Detection Algorithms Based on Deep Learning

Gaoyan Dong, Bin Li, Yiliang Chen, Xinyu Wang

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 165-177
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12774

Object detection is the crucial task in the field of computer vision. In recent years, intelligent driving technology and intelligent transportation system have set off a boom. Therefore, vehicle object detection has also become a hot research task in the field of computer vision and deep learning. With the rapid development of deep learning, the current mainstream vehicle detection algorithms are Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN)-based two-stage and one-stage object detection algorithms. Because of the local nature of the image presented by CNN, the global receptive field of the network is limited. At the same time, Transformer shows a strong long-distance dependence characteristic, and opens up a new idea of combining images with Transformer. Therefore, the research of object detection algorithm based on Transformer gradually causes a boom. This paper mainly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of several representative algorithm models, and makes a summary and prospect.

Open Access Review Article

Status of Research on Water Hammer Effect in Long Distance Pressure Pipelines

Wu Linfeng, You Rongyu, Wang Wen, Zhang Fan

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 204-211
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12778

In the long distance pressure pipeline, the sudden change of instantaneous pressure caused by the rapid change of liquid velocity is called water hammer, which seriously threatens the safe operation of hydropower station.  In this paper, the development and calculation methods of transient flow percussion theory are introduced, and different models and numerical methods are analyzed and compared. Finally, the problems in transient flow research and water hammer prevention measures are summarized, which is helpful to reduce the occurrence of water hammer accidents and guarantee the normal and stable operation of water supply pipeline system. This conclusion can provide reference for water hammer protection of long distance water supply system.

Open Access Review Article

A Global Look at the Market Potential of Liquid Container Board and Its Ability to Reduce Plastic Waste – A Brief Review

Klaus Dölle, Nicole Byrnes, Sean Dristle, Tyler Fernandez, Mumin Hussein, Colby Krauss, Brody McCarthy, Paul Sausville, Johnny Schoen, Jack Slavinskas, Evan Wilson, Ian Wojcikowski

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 223-235
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12780

The use of aseptic packaging creates many opportunities around the world to replace plastic based packaging of liquid and food-based containers in the near future. This will lead to a cleaner environment, less pollution within the air and the sea, and will help stimulate growth within the economy. Soon the use of aseptic packaging containers will be global which will help decrease the amount of pollution along with the number of landfills throughout the world. Many of the world regions highlighted in this paper are decreasing their plastic usage while increasing their recycled product production. As societal values are shifting more towards green materials and sustainable living, the general consumer is becoming more educated and aware of their ability to impact companies and government views, and are placing a larger value on sustainable, recyclable packaging. Aseptic packaging will be an important part of consumerism and the growing market contributes to a more sustainable, greener world as the efficiency of the recycling and production processes using aseptic packaging materials will improve over the coming years, allowing more fiber, plastic and aluminum to be recovered and used in the creation of new APC products.

Open Access Review Article

Advances and Development in Hybrid Polymer Composite: The Way Forward

J. A. Olowokere, U. G. Akpan, J. O. Okafor, S. M. Auta

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 281-295
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12784

This paper presents the unique and outstanding properties of hybrid polymer composite (HPC).  The various classification of HPC based on the combination of matrices, fibres and fillers in use are brought to bear. The different techniques/methods employed in the production of hybrid polymer composites, ranging from hot press to cold press are being discussed. It is paramount to note that the production process of HPC from start to finish is not without some inherent and external challenges, such as agglomeration of fibre, fillers and weak interfacial adhesion between fillers and matrices. Chemical modification of fibre was identified as one of the ways of proffering solution to this drawback. This study also presents a wide range of the application of HPC as enumerated in this work. The degradation of HPC as a result of natural and accelerated weathering conditions such as ultra violet (UV) rays, heat caused by high temperature, rain and humidity was also discussed. The durability and lifespan of these HPC can be strengthened and prolonged through the use of intumescents and other additives. All of these can help in improving the resistance of HPC to adverse weathering conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Business Trends in Digital Era: A Review

Sandesh Achar, Kumar Vijayendra, Sanwal Hussain, Aditya Kejriwal, Anurag Kejriwal

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 328-338
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12788

The business has a unique function in sustainable economic growth since it not only helps realize creative potential but also generates dispersed employment opportunities and additional funding for budgets at various levels. The use of various digital technologies within a business model that enables a company to have a variety of value-producing opportunities within the company is referred to as digitalization. Additionally, the field of management accounting has seen a significant degree of change with the aid of digitalization, which has improved it significantly. Furthermore, digitalization can have an impact on an organization's business models, and it enhances management accounting in a company setting. According to Business Trends in the Digital Era, trends drive transformations. Cities with greater competitiveness will transition from industrial centers to industry and innovation hubs, and businesses with greater competitiveness will transition from production to product and innovation centers. The secret to success is innovation! The current trend in development is innovation-driven. This article summarizes all the new trends of business in this digital era.

Open Access Review Article

Research Progress of Artificial Neural Network and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis of Chemical Industry

Zhihui Zhao, Jiying Li

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 363-372
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i12791

Many characteristics exhibited by artificial neural networks, such as nonlinearity, large scale, strong parallel processing ability, as well as robustness, fault tolerance, and strong self-learning ability, make it attractive for fault detection and diagnosis in complex systems. The relationship between the complex process, cumbersome process, and measurable process variable failure causes of chemical process is very complicated. Once a failure occurs, it will cause huge economic losses and casualties. The emergence of artificial neural network provides a new chemical fault diagnosis technology, which can carry out early and accurate fault detection and diagnosis for chemical process and equipment, so as to improve the efficiency and safety of production. This paper introduces the basic principle and development history of artificial neural network, as well as several typical artificial neural networks, such as back propagation algorithm (BP network), radial basis network (RBF network), and their application in chemical process fault diagnosis.