Open Access Short Research Article

Multimodal Remote Sensing and Machine Learning for Precision Agriculture: A Review

O. B. Falana, O. I. Durodola

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i8740

This study proposed various machine learning and deep learning techniques to integrate and analyze varieties of data in precision agriculture systems. Agricultural systems have undergone a digital transformation, which has resulted in the evolution of many management components into artificially intelligent systems to better value the ever-increasing amounts of data. In the process of putting in place farming systems that are based on knowledge, several obstacles can be overcome using machine learning. The data obtained are transmitted to on-site storage, where extraction, loading, and transformation are performed. The data is preprocessed and transferred to the AWS (Amazon Web Services) cloud (Amazon S3 Bucket). The best model is deployed such that new data can be fit into the model to make adequate prediction or classification. Such a solution can be adapted by building an algorithm to simulate the AWS machine learning technique. A small-scale pilot project can be executed, and the output of the prediction or classification model can be displayed using a web-based software or mobile app.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Large Openings on Bending Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beam

Olanitori, Lekan Makanju, Otuaga, Moses Philips, Oso, Ifedotun Ayodeji

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i8736

At the design stage of beams, openings for service ducts are rarely taking into consideration. The introduction of openings for service ducts have negative effects on the strength characteristics of beams, hence the focus of this research is to investigate the effect of large service openings on the ultimate load of reinforced concrete beams produced from locally available materials. A total of ten beams were cast using 20.8 N/mm² concrete grade. The cross-sectional dimensions of the beams were 100mm x 150mm and 1000 mm length, with effective span of 750 mm. The tested beams consisted of two control beams. The experimental beams consisted of eight beams, four of the beams were with 40 mm service openings (with two beams having openings at the centre and two beams having openings at the supports) and the other four beams had 50 mm service holes (with two beams having openings at the centre and two beams having openings at the supports). The reinforced concrete beams were cured by covering it with wet cloths and tested at 28th day. The control beams and experimental beams were subjected to point loads at the beam centre to study the effect of the openings on the ultimate load. The average actual ultimate load for the experimental beams with 40 mm openings at the supports (TII) and centre were (TIII) were 49.48 kN and 63.28 kN respectively, representing 28% increase in the ultimate load when opening is moved from support to the centre of the beam. Also there is 45% increase in the average actual ultimate load for the experimental beams with 50 mm, when the opening is moved from supports (TIV) to the centre (TV). The average actual ultimate load for the control beams (TI) was 63.88 kN, while the estimated ultimate loads for control and the experimental beams was 70.13 kN, which shows that the estimated ultimate load is about 10% higher than the actual ultimate load. The openings placed at the supports of beams have more strength reducing effect on the ultimate load, when compared with the openings placed at the centre of the beams.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization Design of Tension Machine Frame Based on Solidworks and ANSYS Workbench

Yanhao Dong

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 11-17
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i8737

The parameterized model of the tension machine frame is established through Solidworks software, and then the optimization function of ANSYS Workbench is used to optimize the design of the frame. Under the condition of meeting the strength, the weight reduction design of the frame is completed. Compared with the original design scheme, the maximum equivalent stress and maximum overall shape of the optimized scheme will be lower, the weight will be reduced by 7.11%, and the weight reduction effect will be significant, thus reducing the design cost and having great economic benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appropriate Technology and Design: A Solution for Sustainable and Affordable Housing Delivery in Major Cities of Ghana

Emmanuel Tekpe, Samuel Kwame Ansah, Benjamin Boahene Akomah

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i8739

Appropriate technology and design for housing delivery undoubtedly has abundant cost benefit and other advantages. However, the acceptance of its usage and application for sustainable and affordable housing delivery is rare. Appropriate technology supports and enhances good life without compromising the earth’s ecosystem and the prospects of later generations. It is energy efficient, environmentally sound, and it is been controlled by the local community with local available materials. Appropriate housing design on other hand, focuses on the engineering and architectural perspective of a structure that supports sustainable construction and development. The paper aimed at determining the extent to which appropriate technologies and designs are currently employed in addressing housing sustainability and affordability in Ghana. Questionnaire survey was used for the data collection. The study was conducted in Accra, Takoradi and Cape Coast of Ghana within the period of 5 Months.  In total, 110 questionnaires were distributed among Building and Construction Professionals and Self- Built House Owners. Out of the number distributed, 56 were retrieved for analysis. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study established that, hydrafoam, adobe bricks technology, timber homes technology, and wattle and daub technology were considered the most used and acceptable appropriate technologies for sustainable and affordable housing delivering. The findings of the study also revealed that, the extent to which appropriate technologies and designs have been adopted in major cities in Ghana is low. This implies that less emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate technology and design in resolving sustainable and affordable housing issues in major cities. It is therefore, suggested that, government and stakeholders mainstream the use of appropriate designs and technologies for sustainable and affordable delivery. Consequently, stakeholders should help change the perception of Ghanaians towards the adoption of appropriate technologies and designs for sustainable and affordable housing delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exponential Model for Adsorption Kinetics

V. E. Amah, J. C. Agunwamba

Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/jerr/2022/v23i8741

Adsorption is one of the most widely applied techniques for the removal of contaminants from the environment. The effectiveness of an adsorbent is dependent on its kinetics. There are lots of studies on adsorption kinetics, and several mathematical models have been developed to describe this process based on certain perceived underlying mechanism. However, most models which have been used to fit the kinetic data have shown a moderate level of correlation or no fit at all. This is mainly because of error in assuming the governing equation and erroneous assumptions when finding solutions to the governing equations. In this research an exponential model is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of an adsorbate onto an adsorbent follows essentially two stages. There is a rapid stage that tends towards a first phase pseudo-equilibrium (Qr(0)) at a rate of kr and transits at a time ‘tr’ and rate ktr to a slow stage which tends towards a second phase pseudo-equilibrium (Qs(0)) at a rate of ka which marks the climax of the process. Mathematical equations were used to describe this process and solved analytically to obtain the new exponential model. The model was used to estimate kinetic data and compared with the first and second order equations with an R2 of 0.994, 0.999 and 0.998 respectively. The new adsorption parameters Qr(0) , Qs(0), kr, ks, ktr and tr  were also extracted from the calibrated model.