Journal of Engineering Research and Reports <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Engineering Research and Reports</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-2926)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas&nbsp;of engineering.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Engineering Research and Reports 2582-2926 In Situ Precipitated Calcium Carbonate in the Presence of Pulp Fibers – A Beating Study <p>The paper industry around the world is in search for new ways to decrease production costs. New approached with additives such as new developed <em>In Situ</em> precipitated paper fillers materials have the potential to reduce production cost and increase profit margins.</p> <p><em>In Situ</em> precipitated calcium carbonate filler with 20.9% and 41.7% filler material was produced in a large-scale laboratory unit using a eucalyptus pulp fiber suspension with a 1.7% fiber solids content.</p> <p>Laboratory beating tests were performed with a Valley Beater and APFI Mill using pure eucalyptus pulp with no filler content as the based trial and the two-laboratory manufactured <em>In Situ</em> precipitated filler pulps.</p> <p>Valley Beater and PFI Mill laboratory beating machines show similar differences/trends for the breaking length, tear and burst index.</p> <p>EC-pulp with no filler has the highest strength for breaking length, tear and burst index. With increasing filler level breaking length, tear and burst index decrease. Filler containing pulp shows a decrease in beating time for the same beating level.&nbsp; 20 minutes for the Valley Beater and 15000 revolutions for the PFI mill show highest change in pulp fiber beating level sufficient for paper making operation.</p> <p>Valley Beater and PFI Mill laboratory equipment operate different and an exact comparison of the beating curves is not possible. Based on the amount of pulp fiber needed for experiments the Valley Beater for large amounts and the PFI mill for smaller amounts should be selected.</p> <p>The SEM pictographs of the Valley Beater and PFI Mill beating trials from 0 stage to the high beating stage at 80 minutes for the Valley beater and 60000 revolutions for the PFI Mill show similar results. No damage to the fibers is noticeable at the unbeaten level. With increasing beating level. At a magnification of 430 times the fiber structure shows an increasing dense fiber structure with less visible pores. Magnification of 2500 times reveals increasing damage to the fiber wall and fiber surface.</p> Klaus Dölle Bardhyl Bajrami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 1 17 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i817352 Epoxy Fillet Height Study of Tapeless QFN Leadframe Package on Different Diebonders <p>The paper focused on the evaluation of quad-flat no-leads (QFN) device in tapeless leadframe technology on different diebonder platforms to achieve an acceptable fillet height performance. The study was narrowed down into two main machines with the objective of attaining a fillet height of less than 75 % for small die. Eventually, the fillet height requirement was achieved by both diebonder platforms, hence, these machines could be used for future works on devices with similar requirement.</p> E. Graycochea Jr. R. Rodriguez F. R. Gomez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 18 21 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i817353 Derivation of Minimal Cutsets from Minimal Pathsets for a Multi-State System and Utilization of Both Sets in Checking Reliability Expressions <p>This paper addresses two important useful extensions of binary reliability techniques to multi-state reliability techniques, namely: (a) the problem of complementation or inversion of the function of system success to that of system failure (or equivalently, of deriving the logical minimal cutsets in terms of the logical minimal paths), and (b) the associated problem of hand-checking of a symbolic reliability expression. The paper deals specifically with the reliability of a multi-state delivery network. It presents two complementation procedures, one via the application of multi-state De Morgan’s rules, and the other via the multi-state Boole-Shannon expansion. The paper also illustrates one case in which this complementation is needed, as it outlines a method for checking the reliability of the multi-state system in terms of its logical minimal paths and logical minimal cutsets.</p> Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi Motaz Hussain Amashah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-08 2021-06-08 22 33 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i817354 Substrate Design Augmentation for Die Placement Reference at Die Attach Process <p>Die placement reference in die attach process is one of the critical aspects in measuring the actual die placement especially for the device that has a required measurement. This paper focused on the re-design on the layout of the substrate ball grid array (BGA) package with cross fiducials at the singulation lane which are located at the corner portions of the device. The cross fiducial would serve as a reference when measuring the actual placement of the Silicon die in the package. With this improvement, the technicians and operators could now easily identify the reference based on the mount and bonding diagram requirement.</p> Rennier Rodriguez Jr. Edwin Graycochea Frederick Ray Gomez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 34 37 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i817355 Defining an Optimized Machine Process Sequence to Address Broken Wafer Phenomenon on Semiconductor Products <p>Silicon wafer as a direct material is one of the vital parts of a semiconductor product. Wastages on manufacturing plants that pulls the yield down should be addressed innovatively and accurately. This paper focused on the phenomenon of broken wafers at wafer taping process during wafer preparation. Using a wafer taper machine, silicon wafers are covered by an industrial tape as preparation for the next process. During processing and wafers are placed on wafer boat, unexpected phenomenon of broken wafers due to unwanted falling was encountered. Findings was due to the unintentional dragging of the machine’s robot arm after wafer processing. The problem is resolved through simulation and experiments using statistical analysis. As a result, an optimized machine parameter setting was defined to eliminate the said rejection. Statistical analysis was of a big help in resolving the said phenomenon and improved the process yield of the manufacturing.</p> Jerome J. Dinglasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-12 2021-06-12 38 44 10.9734/jerr/2021/v20i817356