Investigative Study of Effects of Gallus domesticus guano, Cucumeropsis mannii shell and Elaeis guineensis shell Additives on the Refractory Properties of Isiagu Clay
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports,
This research investigated the effects of chicken dropping, melon shell and palm kernel additives on the refractory properties of Isiagu Clay. The raw materials were collected locally, processed and analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX). The additives were added to the raw clay in the ratio of 2.5,5.0,7.5 and 10 wt% and fired at 900oC and 1100oC, respectively. The refractory properties measured were; linear shrinkage, apparent porosity and bulk density. The result of the SEM/EDX analyses showed that the clay is a fireclay since it contains 61.68% Al2O3 and 34.97% SiO2 while chicken dropping, melon shell, and palm kernel shell contained 37.41% SiO2, 84.62% P2O5, and 48.31% Nb2O5, respectively. Chicken dropping was responsible for strength, melon for toughness and palm kernel shell for conductivity. SEM/EDX morphological results showed that the clay sample contains tiny to coarse particles. The bulk density measurement confirmed the strength and toughness of melon shell, the only additive which met the international standard for refractory application. XRD analysis results showed the presence of two crystalline phases at 21.4o and 22.4o namely, quartz and calcite in the additives used which are both responsible for strength in the refractory brick. Sudden variation in properties was observed for chicken droppings due to the presence of a reasonable amount of P2O5. From the study, melon shell and palm kernel shell are suitable for refractory brick production and further studies are recommended for chicken dropping. ANOVA results confirmed that for melon shell and apparent porosity only temperature was significant.
- Melon shell
- palm kernel shell
- insulating and refractory
How to Cite
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DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmee.20150402.02, on 28 January, 2020
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