Challenges and Opportunities of Irrigation Practices in Ethiopia: A Review
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports,
Ethiopia has been started traditional irrigation practice since ancient time for the aim of subsistence food production. Since 1950’s modern irrigation system was introduced in Awash and Rift Valley basins for production of industrial crops. Government, donors and non-governmental organizations are investing to the development of irrigation systems from small to large scale irrigation schemes. As a result, irrigation is developing rapidly. However, its contribution to the national economy is insignificant when compared to rain-fed agriculture. This review was conducted to investigate the irrigation practice challenges and opportunities in Ethiopia. The extension service was inadequate and not packaged. Credit service bureaucracy like group collateral was constrained to improve irrigated crop production. Water governance was done by water users but interference by the government bodies aggravated water use conflicts. Streams drying, percolation and seepage of water are the most challenges. Irrigation created employment opportunity for household members and the rural community and also improved their income. Therefore, policy makers and development practitioners should improve policies and strategies based on the agro-ecology and socio-economic settings of irrigation areas to overcome the challenges and strengthen the opportunities.
How to Cite
Awulachew SB, Mekonnen A. Performance of irrigation: An assessment at different scales in Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press. 2011;47(S1):57–69.
Yazew E. Development and management of irrigated lands in Tigray, Ethiopia. PhD thesis, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands. 2005; 265.
MoA. Natural resources management directorates. Small-Scale Irrigation Situation Analysis and Capacity Needs Assessment, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011a.
Bekele Y, Nata T, Bheemalingswara K. Preliminary study on the impact of water quality and irrigation practices on soil salinity and crop production, gergera watershed, Atsbi-Wonberta, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, MEJS. 2012;4(1):29-46.
PASDEP. Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty. FDRE 2005/6-2009/10, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2005.
Agricultural Development Led Industrialization. Economic Development policy of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 1994.
Makombe G, Kelemework D, Aredo D. A comparative analysis of rainfed and irrigated agricultural production in Ethiopia. Irrigation and Drainage Systems. 2007;21: 35-44.
Kalkidan, Tewodros. Review on the role of small scale irrigation agriculture on poverty alleviation In Ethiopia. North Asian International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary. 2017;3(6).
Bitew G. Status of small-scale irrigation projects in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Nile Basin Water Science & Engineering Journal. 2013;6(1).
Reddy RN. Irrigation Engineering, Gene-Tech Books, New Delhi -110 002; 2010.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). Irrigation Manual: Planning, Development Monitoring and Evaluation of Irrigated Agriculture with Farmer Participation. 2002;2:7.
Awulachew SB, Merry J, Kamara AB, Van Koppen B, Penning de Vries F, Boelee E, Makombe G. Experiences and opportunities for promoting small-scale/micro irrigation and rainwater harvesting for food security in Ethiopia. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 2005;91.
Robel, Lambiso. Assessment of design practices and performance of small-scale irrigation structures in South Region, M.Sc. Thesis, Arbaminch University, School of Graduate Studies; 2005.
MoA (Ministry of Agriculture). Natural Resources Sector Small-Scale Irrigation Capacity Building Strategy for Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011b.
Hagos F, Makombe G, Namara RE, Awulachew SB. Importance of irrigated agriculture to the Ethiopian economy: Capturing the direct net benefits of irrigation. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. (IWMI Research Report 128). 2009;37.
Nata T, Asmelash B, Bheemalingeswara K. Initiatives, opportunities and challenges in shallow groundwater utilization: A case study from debrekidane watershed, Hawzien Woreda, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript LW 08 (008)X:22; 2008.
MoWR. Irrigation development strategy (component of the water sector development strategy). Draft Report. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2001.
Gebremedhin B, Pedon D. Policies and institutions to enhance the impact of irrigation development in mixed crop–livestock system. In Integrated Water and Land Management Research and Capacity Building Priorities for Ethiopia, Proceedings of MoWR/EARO/IWMI/ILRI International Workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2012;2–4:168– 184.
Bacha Dereje, Regasa Namara, Ayalneh Bogale, Abonesh Tesfaye. Impact of Small-scale Irrigation on Household Poverty: Empirical Evidence from the Ambo District in Ethiopia, Irrigation and Drainage. 2011; 60:1–10.
Girma T, Fentaw A. The nature and properties of salt affected soils in middle awash Valley of Ethiopia; International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa Ethiopia; 2003.
Mintesinot B, Mohammed A, Atinkut M, Mustefa Y. Preliminary report on Community Based Irrigation Management in the Tekeze Basin: Impact AssessmentA case study on three small-scale irrigation schemes (micro dams); 2004.
Waganew A. Socio economic and Environmental impact assessment of
community based small-scale irrigation in the upper basin. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 2004.
Abebaw, Mesefen. Challenges and opportunities of small-scale irrigation utilization in Rift Valley Basin, Humbo Woreda, Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2016;7(1). [ISSN: 2222-1700 (Paper)]
[ISSN: 2222- 2855]
Yacob Wondimkun, Melaku Tefera. Household Water Harvesting and Small Scale Irrigation Schemes in Amhara Region SWHISA Project Bahirdar, Ethiopia; 2005.
Shimelis D. Institution management and challenge of small scale irrigation system in Ethiopia: A case study of Gibe Lemu and Gambella Terre in Western Oromiya. MSc Thesis. Addis Ababa University; 2006.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). Irrigation potential in Africa. A basin approach FAO Land and Water, Bulletin 1997;4.
Berhanu A. Effective aid for small farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Southern civil society perspectives Ethiopia case study, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.
Berhanu B. Performance assessment and benchmarking irrigation schemes in Ethiopia: A case study of two irrigation schemes M.Sc. Thesis, UNESCO IHE; 2006.
Seid Y. Small scale irrigation and household food security: A case study of three irrigation schemes in Gubalafto district of North-Wollo Zone Amhara Region. M.Sc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 2002.
Abonesh Tesfay, Ayalneh Bogale, Dereje Bacha, Regassa Namera. Impact of small- scale irrigation on households’ food security: Evidence from Godino and Filtino irrigation schemes in Ada Liven district, Ethiopia. J. of Irrig. Drainage Syst. 2006; 22:145–158.
Lijalem A. Challenges and opportunities of irrigated crop production in Gedeb river catchment: Machakel Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development. 2013;1(1):008-022.
Dejene A, Peden D, Girma T. Gender, irrigation and livestock: exploring the nexus, Policy Briefing ILRI, Addis Ababa; 2005.
Carter R, Danert K. FARM-Africa Ethiopia: Planning for Small-Scale Irrigation Intervention. Working Papers Series. 2006;4.
Tucker J, Leulseged Y. Small-scale irrigation in the Ethiopian highlands what potential for poverty reduction and climate adaptation; 2010.
Damenu B Linking Irrigation Farmers to Markets: The Case of Murtute Irrigation Farmers, Ethiopia. MSc thesis; 2011.
Gebrehiwot Rao. Opportunities and challenges of small-scale irrigation and its implications for livelihood improvement: (The case of Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia). Journal of Business Management & Social Sciences Research (JBM&SSR). 2015;4(4).
Gamachu, Tadele. Assessment of status of irrigation practice and utilization in Western Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Civil and Environmental Research. 2018;10(5).
[ISSN: 2224-5790 (Paper)]
[ISSN: 2225-0514 (Online)]
Hagos Niguse. Challenges and Prospects of Utilizing Irrigation Technologies: Survey of Ganta-Afeshum Woreda, Eastern Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia, Thesis. Mekelle: MU; 2014.
Ali DA, Deininger K. Causes and implications of credit rationing in rural Ethiopia: The importance of spatial variation. Policy Research Working paper 6096. World Bank: Washington; 2012.
Nata T, Asmelash B. Recharging practices for the enhancement of hand dug wells discharge in Debre Kidane watershed, North Ethiopia. 4th International Work Shop on Water Management and Irrigation: Focus on ground water. Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2007.
Abraham BG, Nata T, Bheemalingeswara K, Mokennen H. Suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation: A case study on hand dug wells in hantebet catchment, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. J. Am. Sci. 2011;7(8): 191-199.
MoWIE (Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy) Water Resources of Ethiopia; The National and International Perspective, Awareness creation Program prepared for Public Relation officials, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2013.
Abstract View: 2237 times
PDF Download: 965 times