Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and Cloud Infrastructures: Policy Recommendations for Enhancing Women's Participation in the Tech-Driven Economy

Favour Amarachi Ezeugwa *

Prairie View A&M University, 100 University Dr, Prairie View, TX 77446, USA.

Oluwaseun Oladeji Olaniyi

University of the Cumberlands, 104 Maple Drive, Williamsburg, KY 40769, United States of America.

Jennifer Chinelo Ugonnia

Ulster University, Centre City House, 7 Hill St, Birmingham B5 4UA, United Kingdom.

Abayomi Shamsudeen Arigbabu

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Princess Chimmy Joeaneke

University of the Cumberlands, 104 Maple Drive, Williamsburg, KY 40769, United States of America.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study investigates the underrepresentation of women in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and Cloud Infrastructures, exploring the barriers and challenges they face and assessing the effectiveness of current policies and initiatives to promote gender diversity within the tech industry. Employing quantitative research methods, the study used a survey distributed to 572 female professionals in tech-related roles across various industries, achieving a 67.9% response rate. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to test four main hypotheses concerning barriers to entry and advancement, the inclusivity of educational programs, the impact of diverse teams on innovation and performance, and the effectiveness of gender-inclusive policies. Key findings indicate that the type of organization and specific tech sectors significantly influence the barriers experienced by women. Notably, gender diversity within teams correlates strongly with improved innovation and performance. However, educational and training programs often fail to be sufficiently inclusive, underscoring the need for programs better tailored to women's needs in tech fields. Moreover, the study confirms that implementing gender-inclusive policies substantially increases women's participation in tech roles, especially when these policies are applied long-term. Based on the findings, recommendations are made for adopting comprehensive, inclusive practices at organizational and educational levels, promoting diversity in team composition and leadership, committing long-term to effective policy implementation, and developing supportive networks through mentorship and sponsorship programs. These measures are aimed at reducing gender disparities and enhancing the integration of women into the high-tech economy. The study underscores the critical role that strategic policy-making and organizational change play in fostering an inclusive tech environment that not only addresses gender disparities but also enhances overall industry innovation and performance.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, big data, cloud infrastructures, women in technology, gender diversity, inclusivity, tech industry policies

How to Cite

Ezeugwa, F. A., Olaniyi, O. O., Ugonnia, J. C., Arigbabu, A. S., & Joeaneke, P. C. (2024). Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and Cloud Infrastructures: Policy Recommendations for Enhancing Women’s Participation in the Tech-Driven Economy. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports, 26(6), 1–16.


Download data is not yet available.


Balka E, Wagner I, Weibert A, Wulf V. Gender and technology at work: From workplace studies to social justice in design. Cambridge University Press; 2024. Available:

Parker K, Funk C. Women are more concerned than men about gender discrimination in tech industry. Pew Research Center; 2017. Available:

Marchant N. 8 charts that show the impact of race and gender on technology careers,” World Economic Forum; 2021. Available:

Ali SB, Mangi R, Atta Z. A comparative study on the general perception of gender discrimination and job satisfaction among employees. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies. 2024;24(1):195–215. Available:

Mhlanga D. Empowering African Women through Industry 4.0 in the 21st Century.; 2024. Available:

Sestino A, Prete MI, Piper L, Guido G. Internet of things and big data as enablers for business digitalization strategies. Technovation. 2020;98(102173):102173. DOI:

Nair MM, Tyagi AK. Chapter 11 - AI, IoT, blockchain, and cloud computing: The necessity of the future. Science Direct; 2023. Available: Women in the Digital Economy Fund: USAID, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Partners Launch WiDEF. Newsroom; 2024. Available: (accessed Apr. 11, 2024).

USAID. FACT SHEET: Women in the Digital Economy Initiative. Fact Sheet, U.S. Agency for International Development; 2024. Available:

Anzak S, Sultana A, Zeeshan M. Digital Technologies: Enabling Environment For Women Entrepreneurs. Russian Law Journal. 2023;11(5S):567–579. Available:

Graham A, Wright A. Diversity Management: Perspectives of a Diverse and Inclusive Workplace. Findings from the ICT sector. Conference Materials; 2021. Available:

Allioui H, Mourdi Y. Unleashing the potential of AI: Investigating cutting-edge technologies that are transforming businesses. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Data Science (IJCEDS). 2023;3(2):1–12. Available:

Gill SS, et al. AI for next generation computing: Emerging trends and future directions. Internet of Things. 2022;19:100514. Available:

Marquis YA, Oladoyinbo TO, Olabanji SO, Olaniyi OO, Ajayi SS. Proliferation of Ai tools: A multifaceted evaluation of user perceptions and emerging tren. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2024;18(1):30–35. Available:

Thomson R, Anderson J. Bridging the gap: Big data’s influence on Ai algorithms and models. EPH - International Journal of Science and Engineering. 2021;7(4):52–56. Available:

Adewusi AO, Okoli UI, Adaga E, Olorunsogo T, Asuzu OF, Daraojimba DO. Business intelligence in the era of big data: A review of analytical tools and competitive advantage. Computer Science and IT Research Journal. 2024;5(2):415–431 Available:

Olaniyi OO, Ugonnia JC, Olaniyi FG, Arigbabu AT, Adigwe CS. Digital collaborative tools, strategic communication, and social capital: Unveiling the impact of digital transformation on organizational dynamics. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(5):140–156. Available:

Vardhan VNRTGH, Sushanth K. The Future of Entrepreneurship: Employing Artificial Intelligence. ; 2024. Available:

Olaniyi OO. Ballots and padlocks: Building digital trust and security in democracy through information governance strategies and blockchain technologies. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(5):172–189. Available:

Jagatheesaperumal SK, Rahouti M, Ahmad K, Al-Fuqaha A, Guizani M. The Duo of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data for Industry 4.0: Applications, Techniques, Challenges, and Future Research Directions. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 2021;9(15):1–1. Available:

Arigbabu AT, Olaniyi OO, Adigwe CS, Adebiyi OO, Ajayi SA. Data governance in ai - enabled healthcare systems: A case of the project nightingale. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(5):85–107. Available:

Olaniyi OO, Shah N, Bahuguna N. Quantitative Analysis and Comparative Review of Dividend Policy Dynamics within the Banking Sector: Insights from Global and U.S. Financial Data and Existing Literature. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2023;23(23):179–199. Available:

Oluwaseun Oladeji Olaniyi, Christopher Uzoma Asonze, Samson Abidemi Ajayi, Samuel Oladiipo Olabanji, and Chinasa Susan Adigwe. A regressional study on the impact of organizational security culture and transformational leadership on social engineering awareness among bank employees: The interplay of security education and behavioral change. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2023;23(23):128–143. Available:

Molloy R. Women in leadership: Are levels of workplace psychological safety related to bias towards women’s authority and the number of women in visible leadership roles, within Irish technology organisations.; 2022. Available:

Sreevas VTK, Kulkarni PV. Women Leaders in Environmental Management; 2024 Available:

Gangi F, Daniele LM, D’Angelo E, Varrone N, Coscia M. The impact of board gender diversity on banks’ environmental policy: The moderating role of gender inequality in national culture. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. 2022;30(3). Available:

Adebiyi OO, Olabanji SO, Olaniyi OO. Promoting inclusive accounting education through the integration of stem principles for a diverse classroom. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies. 2023;49(4):152–171. Available:

Gutterman AS. Embedding diversity, equity, and inclusion. Social Science Research Network; 2023, Available:

Ferrara E. Fairness and Bias in Artificial Intelligence: A Brief Survey of Sources, Impacts, and Mitigation Strategies. Sci. 2023;6(1):3–3. Available:

Adigwe CS, Olaniyi OO, Olagbaju OO, Olaniyi FG. Leading in a time of crisis: The coronavirus effect on leadership in America. Asian journal of economics, business and accounting. 2024;24(4):1–20. Available:

Aloisi A, De Stefano V. Essential jobs, remote work and digital surveillance: Addressing the COVID‐19 pandemic panopticon. International Labour Review. 2021;161(2):289–314. Available:

Wynn AT. Pathways toward change: Ideologies and gender equality in a silicon valley technology company. Gender and Society. 2019;34(1):089124321987627. Available:

Abalaka AI, Olaniyi OO, Adebiyi OO. Understanding and overcoming the limitations to strategy execution in hotels within the small and medium enterprises sector. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2023;23(22): 26–36. Available:

DSJD, Sk SB. Reconstruction of women roles: An Analysis. Laxmi Book Publication; 2024. Available:

Olaniyi OO, Okunleye OJ, Olabanji SO, Asonze CU, Ajayi SA. IOT security in the era of ubiquitous computing: A multidisciplinary approach to addressing vulnerabilities and promoting resilience. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2023;16(4):354–371 Available:

Olabanji SO. AI for identity and access management (IAM) in the cloud: Exploring the potential of artificial intelligence to improve user authentication, authorization, and access control within cloud-based systems, Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(3):38–56 Available:

Van Niekerk D et al, Challenging systematic prejudices: An investigation into bias against women and girls,; Mar. 01, 2024. Available: (accessed Apr. 11, 2024).

Davila Dos Santos E, Albahari A, Díaz S, De Freitas EC, Science and technology as feminine’: Raising awareness about and reducing the gender gap in STEM careers, Journal of Gender Studies. 2021;31(4):1–14. Available:

Schwartz R, Vassilev A, Greene K, Perine L, Burt A, Hall P, Towards a standard for identifying and managing bias in artificial intelligence, Towards a standard for identifying and managing bias in Artificial Intelligence; Mar. 2022. Available:

Snowball J, Tarentaal D, Sapsed J, Innovation and diversity in the digital cultural and creative industries, Arts, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation. 2022;187–215. Available:

Dick P, Rethinking gender inequalities in organizations; Jan. 09, 2024. Available: (accessed Apr. 11, 2024).

Olabanji SO, Oladoyinbo OB, Asonze CU, Oladoyinbo TO, Ajayi SA, Olaniyi OO, Effect of adopting Ai to explore big data on personally identifiable information (PII) for financial and economic data transformation, Asian journal of economics, business and accounting. Feb. 2024;24(4):106–125. Available:

Adeniyi O, The Impact of artificial intelligence on women’s jobs in Africa, The Republic; Mar. 04, 2024. Available: (accessed Apr. 11, 2024).

Zhang Y, Discrimination against Women in the Workplace, Journal of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences. 2024;27;135–140. Available:

Oladoyinbo TO, Olabanji SO, Olaniyi OO, Adebiyi OO, Okunleye OJ, Alao AI, Exploring the challenges of artificial intelligence in data integrity and its influence on social dynamics, Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. Jan. 2024;18(2):1–23. Available:

Yang Y, Xu C, Tugce Karatas, Glass TE, Maeda Y, Achievement goals, imposter syndrome, and psychological distress among female STEM students: A structural equation model, Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice; Jan. 2024. Available:

Mayeke NR, Arigbabu AT, Olaniyi OO, Okunleye OJ, Adigwe CS, Evolving access control Paradigms: A comprehensive multi-dimensional analysis of security risks and system assurance in cyber engineering. 2024;17(5):108–124. Available:

Galsanjigmed E, Sekiguchi T, Challenges women experience in leadership careers: An integrative review, Merits. 2023;3(2):366–389. Available:

Roberson Q, Scott W. Contributive justice: An invisible barrier to workplace inclusion, Journal of Management. Aug. 2022;50(3):014920632211160. Available:

Olabanji SO, Marquis YA, Adigwe CS, Abidemi AS, Oladoyinbo TO, Olaniyi OO, AI-driven cloud security: Examining the impact of user behavior analysis on threat detection, Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. Jan. 2024;17(3):57–74. Available:

Roopaei M, Horst J, Klaas E, Foster G, Salmon-Stephens TJ, Grunow J, Women in AI: Barriers and Solutions,” IEEE Xplore; May 01, 2021. Available:

Adigwe CS, Mayeke NR, Olabanji SO, Okunleye OJ, Joeaneke PC, Olaniyi OO, The evolution of terrorism in the digital age: Investigating the adaptation of terrorist groups to cyber technologies for recruitment, propaganda, and cyberattacks, Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. Feb. 2024;24(3):289–306. Available:

Bachmann N, Tripathi S, Brunner M, Jodlbauer H, The contribution of data-driven technologies in achieving the sustainable development goals, Sustainability. Feb. 2022;14(5):2497. Available:

Naseem MT, Bhatti MRS, Ahmad MHM, Jameel MR, Professional experiences and life satisfaction of married women: A qualitative exploration, Jahan-e-Tahqeeq. Dec. 2023;6(4):593–604. Available:

Olabanji SO, Oladoyinbo TO, Asonze CU, Adigwe CS, Okunleye OJ, Olaniyi OO, Leveraging fin tech compliance to mitigate cryptocurrency volatility for secure US employee retirement benefits: Bitcoin ETF case study, Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. Feb. 2024;24(4):147–167. Available:

Wilcox A, McDonald S, Benton RA, Tomaskovic-Devey D, Gender inequality in relational position-taking: An analysis of intra-organizational job mobility networks, Social Science Research. Jul. 2021;101:102622 Available:

Bontrager M, Clinton MS, Tyner L. Flexible work arrangements: A human resource development Tool to reduce turnover, Advances in Developing Human Resources. Jan. 2021;23(2):152342232098293. Available:

Kim de Laat, Living to work (from Home): Overwork, remote work, and gendered dual devotion to work and family, Work And Occupations; Oct. 2023. Available:

Madkins TC, Howard NR, Freed , “Engaging equity pedagogies in computer science learning environments, Journal of Computer Science Integration. Nov. 2020;1–27. Available:

Kuchynka SL, Eaton A, Rivera LM, Understanding and addressing gender‐based inequities in STEM: research synthesis and recommendations for U.S. K‐12 Education, Social Issues and Policy Review. Jan. 2022;16(1):252– 288. Available:

Batty L, Reilly K, Understanding barriers to participation within undergraduate STEM laboratories: Towards development of an inclusive curriculum, Journal of Biological Education. Jan. 2022;57(5):1–23 Available:

Monique W, Supporting black girls’ creativity as they learn to code virtual environments – ProQuest;, 2023. Available: (accessed Apr. 11, 2024).

Main JB, Wang Y, Tan L, Preparing industry leaders: the role of doctoral education and early career management training in the leadership trajectories of WOMEN STEM PhDs, Research in Higher Education. Aug. 2021;63. Available:

Lee J, Chung J, Women in top management teams and their impact on innovation, Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Oct. 2022;183: 121883. Available:

Joo M, Lee J, Kong DT, Jolly PM, Gender diversity advantage at middle management: Implications for high performance work system improvement and organizational performance, Human Resource Management. Dec. 2022;62(5). Available:

Saggese S, Sarto F, Viganò R, Do women directors contribute to R&D? The role of critical mass and expert power, Journal of Management and Governance. May 2020;25. Available:

Green J, Hand JRM, Diversity matters/delivers/wins revisited in S&P 500® Firms,; Aug. 06, 2021. Available:

Joecks J, Pull K, Scharfenkamp K, Women directors, board attendance, and corporate financial performance, Corporate Governance: An International Review. Mar. 2023;32(2). Available:

Beraki MT, Tessema MT, Dhumal P, Ready KJ, Kelati S, Exploring the correlation between diversity and financial performance: an empirical study, International Journal of Business Performance Management. 2022;23(1/2):206. Available:

Rosid A, Judijanto L, Stiadi M, Rostini R, Mohamad MT, Contemporary marketing management strategies: Navigating complexity and challenges in the dynAMIC industry era, International Journal of Economic Literature. Nov. 2023;1(3):271–284. Available:

Popov DA, The future of work: Adapting to technological disruptions in the labor market, Journal of Philosophical Criticism. Dec. 2023;6(02):199–217. Available: